Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium

Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium

Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium

Regarding oral epithelium we are able to identify the following common details, observations, and also results:

  1. For instance, these data form the basis (i.e., base) of a proposed new model of Ebv transition from blood (i.e., haema) to oral epithelium in which EBV-infected Langerhans cell precursors serve to transport EBV to the oral epithelium as they migrate and differentiate into oral Langerhans cells (i.e., interdigitating dendritic cells).[1] Oral, by or having to do with the mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium). Epithelium is a thin layer (i.e., panniculus) of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body (i.e., corpus). EBV is a common virus (i.e., filtrable virus) that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious (i.e., infective) mononucleosis (i.e., benign lymphadenosis, or glandular fever) and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal (i.e., rhinopharyngeal) carcinoma. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Likewise called Epstein-Barr virus. Blood is a tissue with red blood cells, white (i.e., albicans) blood cells, platelets, and other substances suspended in fluid called plasma (i.e., blood plasma). Blood takes oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and carries away wastes. Cell is the
    individual unit that makes up the tissues of the body. All living things are
    made up of one or more cells.
  2. It looks that, the low expression (i.e., facies) of Mcm2 in the basal (i.e., basalis) layer (i.e., stratum basale) of the normal oral epithelium was an unexpected finding but is in keeping with the suggestion of a self-defence mechanism to maintain a controlled cell proliferation of the oral mucous membrane (i.e., biomembrane, or membrana).[2] Cell proliferation
    is an gain in the number of cells as a result of cell growth and cell division
    (i.e., divisio).
  3. It’s been found that, the use of oral epithelium as a model for the investigation of the behaviour of proliferative subpopulations followed on from the work that had already begun in rodent skin.[3]
  4. For instance, advances in our apprehension of the proliferative organization in oral epithelial tissue has been a slow process (i.e., processus) for several reasons.[3]
  5. You can conclude that, in the context of oral epithelium, an accelerated growth phase depicted by broadening the progenitor compartment (i.e., compartimentum) (hyperplasia (i.e., numeric hypertrophy, or quantitative hypertrophy)) is the earlier sequel of exposure to an irritant.[3] Hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of
    normal cells in an organ or tissue.
  6. It might seem apparant that, topical cryotherapy may ameliorate mucositis caused by agents such as five-fluorouracil (5-FU) by reducing vascular delivery of these toxic (i.e., poisonous) agents to replicating oral epithelial tissue.[4] Fluorouracil is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast (i.e., mamma, or teat), stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus), and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head (i.e., caput) and neck (i.e., cervix, or collum) cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell (i.e., basilar cell) skin cancer and actinic keratosis (i.e., senile keratoderma, or senile keratoma) (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. Fluorouracil stops cells from making Dna and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, 5-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, and Fluoroplex. Toxic, having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects. 5-FU is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-FU stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil. 5-fluorouracil is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. five-fluorouracil stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Likewise called five-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil. Cryotherapy, any method acting that uses cold (i.e., frigid) temperature to treat disease. Mucositis is a complication of some cancer therapies in which the lining of the digestive (i.e., digestant) system becomes inflamed. Often seen as sores in the mouth. Topical, on the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of
    the body.
  7. One can identify, three distinct keratinocyte subtypes identified in human oral epithelium by their patterns of keratin expression in culture (i.e., cultivation).[5] Culture is the beliefs, values, and behaviors that are shared within a group, such as a religious group or a nation. Culture includes language, customs, and
    beliefs about roles and relationships.
  8. One can notice, an in vitro organotypic raft culture model of oral epithelial tissue was produced using oral keratinocytes isolated from human tonsils.[5] In vitro is in the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).
  9. It’s been found that, the cells which comprise the basal layer of the oral epithelium suffer a high degree of mitotic activity which is like to actively dividing malignant cells.[6] Mitotic activity, having to perform with the presence of dividing (proliferating) cells. Cancer tissue generally has more mitotic activity than normal tissues. Malignant, cancerous. Malignant cells can invade and
    destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium relevant discoveries consist of, but are not limited by:

  • One can determine that, by taking advantage of current knowledge in malignant neoplastic disease biology and virology, specific OVs have been genetically engineered to target (i.e., target organ) specific molecules or signal transduction pathways in cancer cells in order to reach efficient and selective replication.[1] Signal transduction is the procedure by which a cell responds to substances in its environment. The binding of a substance to a molecule on the open of a cell causes signals to be passed from one molecule to another inside the cell. These signals can involve many functions of the cell, including cell variance and cell death (i.e., mors). Cells that have
    lasting changes in signal transduction molecules may develop into cancer.
  • It seems that, br J Cancer ninety four 11701175|||| Shetty A, Loddo M, Fanshawe T, Prevost AT, Sainsbury R (rectal), Williams GH, Stoeber K (2005) DNA replication licensing and cell cycle (i.e., mitotic cycle (i.e., cell cycle)) kinetics of normal and
    neoplastic bosom is presented here.[2] Cell cycle is the procedure a cell goes through each time it divides. The cell cycle consists of a series of steps during which the chromosomes and other cell stuff double to create two copies. The cell then divides into two daughter cells, each receiving one written
    matter (i.e., substance) of the doubled material. The cell cycle is complete
    when each daughter cell is surrounded by its own outer tissue layer. As well
    called mitotic cycle.
  • One can notice, normal oral mucosal epithelium is estimated to undergo complete replacement every nine to sixteen days.[4] Mucosa is the moist, inner lining of some organs and organic structure cavities (such as the nose (i.e., nasus), mouth, lungs, and abdomen (i.e., venter)). Glands in the mucosa make mucous secretion (a thick, slippery fluid). Also
    called mucous tissue layer.
  • Finally, it looks that, the production of a nonkeratinized organotypic raft civilization model of oral epithelial tissue was a critical component of these studies.[5]

Terminology


Basal cell

a cell of the deepest layer of stratified epithelium


Hypertrophy

General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation. Use of the term may be restricted to denote greater bulk through increase in size, but not in number, of cells or other individual tissue elements


Culture

  1. The propagation of microorganisms on or in media of
    various kinds.
  2. A mass of microorganisms on or in a medium.
  3. The propagation of mammalian cells, cell culture.
  4. A set of beliefs, values, artistic, historical, and
    religious characteristics, and customs common to a community or nation


Mitotic

Relating to or marked by mitosis.


Basilar

Relating to the base of a pyramidal or broad structure.


Cycle

  1. A recurrent series of events.
  2. A recurring period of time.
  3. One successive compression and rarefaction of a wave,
    as of a sound wave.


Burkitt

  1. Denis P., British physician in Uganda,
    1911??????1993.
  2. See Burkitt
    lymphoma


Signal

  1. noise ratio
  2. the relative intensity of a signal to the random
    variation in signal intensity, or noise; used to evaluate many imaging
    techniques and electronic systems.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Cell

  1. The smallest unit of living structure capable of
    independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and
    containing a nucleus or nucleoid. Cells are highly variable and specialized in
    both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate
    proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves.
  2. A small closed or partly closed cavity; a compartment
    or hollow receptacle.
  3. A container of glass, ceramic, or other solid
    material within which chemical reactions generating electricity take place or
    solutions are placed for photometric assays.


Williams

  1. Anna W., U.S. bacteriologist, 1863??????1955.
  2. See Williams
    stain, Park-Williams fixative


Virus

  1. Formerly, the specific agent of an infectious
    disease.
  2. Specifically, a term for a group of infectious
    agents, which, with few exceptions, are capable of passing through fine
    filters that retain most bacteria, are usually not visible through the light
    microscope, lack independent metabolism, and are incapable of growth or
    reproduction apart from living cells. They have a prokaryotic genetic
    apparatus but differ sharply from bacteria in other respects. The complete
    particle usually contains either DNA or RNA, not both, and is usually covered
    by a protein shell or capsid that protects the nucleic acid. They range in
    size from 15 to several hundred nanometers. Classification of viruses depends
    on physiochemical characteristics of virions as well as on mode of
    transmission, host range, symptomatology, and other factors. For viruses not
    listed below, see the specific name.
  3. Relating to or caused by a virus, as a viral
    disease.
  4. Obsolete usage. From before the development of
    bacteriology, any agent thought to cause disease, including a chemical
    substance such as an enzyme (??????ferment??????) similar to snake venom;
    synonymous at that time with ??????poison.??????
  5. Synonyms filtrable virus


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Senile

Relating to or characteristic of old age.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Immunoblastic lymphoma

obsolete term for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.


Nasopharyngeal

Relating to the nasopharynx


Mucositis

Inflammation of a mucous membrane.


Raft

Object or substance that provides floatation to another.


Lymphadenosis

The basic underlying proliferative process that results in enlargement of lymph nodes, as in lymphocytic leukemia and certain inflammations.


Digestive

Relating to digestion


Ostium

A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Basal

  1. Situated nearer the base of a pyramidal organ in
    relation to a specific reference point; opposite of apical.
  2. In dentistry, denoting the floor of a cavity in the
    grinding surface of a tooth.
  3. Denoting a standard or reference state of a function,
    as a basis for comparison. More specifically, denoting the exact conditions
    for measurement of basal metabolic rate (q.v.); basal conditions do not always
    denote a minimum value, metabolic rate in sleep is usually lower than the
    basal rate but is inconvenient for standard measurement


Langerhans cells

  1. dendritic clear cells in the epidermis, containing
    distinctive granules that appear rod- or racket-shaped in section, but lacking
    tonofilaments, melanosomes, and desmosomes; they carry surface receptors for
    immunoglobulin (Fc) and complement (C3), and are believed to be antigen fixing
    and processing cells of monocytic origin; active participants in cutaneous
    delayed hypersensitivity.
  2. cells seen in eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoma of
    the lungs


Stratum basale

  1. the outermost layer of the endometrium that undergoes
    only minimal changes during the menstrual cycle;
  2. Synonyms stratum
    basale epidermidis, basal layer


Tissue

A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them. There are four basic kinds of tissue in the body epithelium; connective tissues including adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage; muscle tissue; and nerve tissue.


Keratinocyte

A cell of the living epidermis and certain oral epithelium that produces keratin in the process of differentiating into the dead and fully keratinized cells of the stratum corneum.


Cavity

  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
    caries


Topical

Relating to a definite place or locality; local.


Target organ

a tissue or organ on which a hormone exerts its action; generally, a tissue or organ with appropriate receptors for a hormone


Digestant

  1. Aiding digestion.
  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of
    digestion


Vascular

Relating to or containing blood vessels.


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Barr

  1. Murray L., Canadian microanatomist,
    1908??????1995.
  2. See Barr
    chromatin body


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Toxic

Pertaining to a toxin


Actinic

Relating to the chemically active rays of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Virology

The study of viruses and of viral disease.


Infective

Capable of transmitting an infection


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Epithelium

The purely cellular avascular layer covering all free surfaces, cutaneous, mucous, and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom.


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Epithelial

Relating to or consisting of epithelium.


Filtrable

Capable of passing a filter; frequently applied to smaller viruses and some bacteria.


Cryotherapy

The use of cold in the treatment of disease.


Actinic keratosis

a premalignant warty lesion occurring on the sun-exposed skin of the face or hands in aged light-skinned persons; hyperkeratosis may form a cutaneous horn, and squamous cell carcinoma of low-grade malignancy may develop in a small proportion of untreated patients


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Membrane

A thin sheet or layer of pliable tissue, serving as a covering or envelope of a part, as the lining of a cavity, as a partition or septum, or as a connection of two structures


Compartment

  1. Partitioned-off portion of a larger bound space; a
    separate section or chamber; the compartments of the limbs are bound deeply by
    bones and intermuscular septa and superficially by deep fascia and generally
    are not in communication with the other compartments, and thus infection or
    increased pathologic pressure may be limited to one compartment; muscles
    contained within the compartments of the limbs share similar functions and
    innervation.
  2. A separate division; specifically, a structural or
    biochemical portion of a cell that is separated from the rest of the cell.
  3. A chemical or physical subdivision of a system in
    which the ratio of the concentration of a labeled entity to that of an
    unlabled entity is constant over a defined period


Target

  1. An object fixed as goal or point of examination.
  2. In the ophthalmometer, the mire.
  3. Anode of an x-ray tube


Oral

Relating to the mouth.


Langerhans

  1. Paul, German anatomist, 1847??????1888.
  2. See Langerhans
    cells, under cell, Langerhans granule, Langerhans islands, under island,
    islets of Langerhans, under islet


Progenitor

A precursor, ancestor; one who begets.


Suggestion

The implanting of an idea in the mind of another by some word or act on one’s part, the subject’s conduct or physical condition being influenced to some degree by the implanted idea.


In vivo

In the living body, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein.


Epstein

  1. Michael Anthony, 20th-century English virologist.
  2. See Epstein-Barr
    virus


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Mucosal

Relating to the mucosa or mucous membrane.


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Secretion

  1. Production by a cell or aggregation of cells (a
    gland) of a physiologically active substance and its movement out of the cell
    or organ in which it is formed.
  2. The solid, liquid, or gaseous product of cellular or
    glandular activity that is stored in or used by the organism in which it is
    produced.


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Replication

  1. The execution of an experiment or study more than
    once so as to confirm the original findings, increase precision, and obtain a
    closer estimate of sampling error.
  2. Autoreproduction or duplication, as in mitosis or
    cellular biology.
  3. DNA-directed DNA synthesis.
  4. See autoreproduction


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Keratoma

A horny tumor


Cell cycle

the periodic biochemical and structural events occurring during proliferation of cells such as in tissue culture; the cycle is divided into phases called G0, Gap1 (G1), synthesis (S1), Gap2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The period runs from one division to the next


Cancerous

Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.


Keratoderma

  1. Any horny superficial growth.
  2. A generalized thickening of the horny layer of the
    epidermis.


Replacement

  1. Restoration.
  2. Substitution.


Language

The use of spoken, manual, written, and other symbols to express, represent, or receive communication.


Mononucleosis

Presence of abnormally large numbers of mononuclear leukocytes in the circulating blood, especially with reference to forms that are not normal.


Form

Shape; mold.


Colorectal

Relating to the colon and rectum, or to the entire large bowel.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Irritant

  1. Irritating; causing irritation.
  2. Any agent with this action.


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Rhinopharyngeal

Relating to the rhinopharynx


Hyperplasia

An increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased


Transduction

  1. Transfer of genetic material (and its phenotypic
    expression) from one cell to another by viral infection.
  2. A form of genetic recombination in bacteria.
  3. Conversion of energy from one form to another.


Dendritic

Relating to the dendrites of nerve cells


Ebv

Abbreviation for Epstein-Barr virus.


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


In vitro

In an artificial environment, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein, as in a test tube or culture medium.


Head

  1. The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body,
    containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.
  2. The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or
    rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.
  3. The rounded extremity of a bone.
  4. That end of a muscle that is attached to the less
    movable part of the skeleton


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Mucous

Relating to mucus or a mucous membrane.


Pancreas

An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.


Mcm

Symbol for micrometer.


Transition

  1. Passage from one condition or one part to another.
  2. In polynucleic acid, replacement of a purine base by
    another purine base or a pyrimidine base by a different pyrimidine.


Cell death

the cessation of respiration within the cell that stops the production of energy, nutrients, active molecular transport, and the like.


Infectious

  1. A disease capable of being transmitted from person to
    person, with or without actual contact.
  2. Denoting a disease due to the action of a
    microorganism


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Biology

The science concerned with the phenomena of life and living organisms.


Biomembrane

A structure bounding a cell or cell organelle; it contains lipids, proteins, glycolipids, steroids, etc


Keratosis

Any lesion on the epidermis marked by the presence of circumscribed overgrowths of the horny layer.


Kinetics

The study of motion, acceleration, or rate of change.


Daughter

  1. In nuclear medicine, an isotope that is the
    disintegration product of a radionuclide.
  2. See daughter
    isotope, radionuclide generator


Mechanism

  1. An arrangement or grouping of the parts of anything
    that has a definite action.
  2. The means by which an effect is obtained.
  3. The chain of events in a particular process.
  4. The detailed description of a reaction pathway.


Stratum

One of the layers of differentiated tissue, the aggregate of which forms any given structure, such as the retina or the skin.


Proliferative

Increasing the numbers of similar forms.


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


Antimetabolite

A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

Related Material

  1. Epstein-Barr virus infection and human malignancies.
  2. British Journal of Cancer – Expression of Mcm2, geminin and Ki67 in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasias and their corresponding squamous-cell carcinomas
  3. Oral leukoplakia (leukokeratosis): Compilation of facts and figures Rajendran R – J Oral Maxillofac Pathol
  4. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ – National Cancer Institute
  5. Activation of Kaposi`s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Gene Expression during Epithelial Differentiation
  6. Oral Cancer – Nursing Link

Cancer Long-term Compare Effects Radiation Therapy

Cancer Long-term Compare Effects Radiation Therapy

Cancer Long-term Compare Effects Radiation (i.e., radiatio) Therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia)

Regarding long-term effects radiation therapy we can determine the following frequent information, observations, and entries:

  1. It has been discovered that, children are especially vulnerable to long-term effects of radiation therapy, as such treatments often affect their growth, mental (i.e., genial, or genian) development, coordination and cognitive abilities, all of which are developing in the brain during childhood.[1] Therapy, treatment. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external (i.e., externus)-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive (i.e., radio-) material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance (i.e., substantia, or matter), such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the body. Tissue is a group or layer (i.e., panniculus) of cells that work together to perform a specific function. Also called irradiation and radiotherapy (i.e., radiation oncology). Radiation, energy released in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves. Common sources of radiation include radon gas, cosmic rays from outer space (i.e., spatium), medical (i.e., medicinal, or medicinal) x-rays, and energy given off by a radioisotope (unstable form of a chemical
    element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable).
  2. It seems that, however, the long-term effects of radiation therapy, especially radiation to the brain, may have huge detrimental effects on individuals depending on the age they were at time of treatment.[1]
  3. It would seem to be apparant that, the long-term effects of radiation therapy, particularly those of secondary cancer, can be enormous.[4] Secondary cancer
    is a term that is used to describe either a new primary cancer or cancer that
    has spread from the place in which it started to other parts of the organic
    structure (i.e., structura).

Furthermore, we can make the pursuing observations with respect to Cancer Long-term Compare Effects Radiation Therapy :

  • It’s that, this approach decreases the vulnerability of healthy tissue and resulting side effects, compared both to external beam radiation therapy and older methods of breast (i.e., mamma, or teat) brachytherapy.[2] Brachytherapy is a type of radiation therapy in which radioactive material sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters is placed directly into or come on a tumor. Also called implant radioactivity therapy, internal radiation therapy, and radiation brachytherapy. Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland).
  • It’s possible to assume that, hair (i.e., pilus) loss is one of the first side effects that shows in a patient undergoing radiation therapy for encephalon cancer.[3]
  • You can notice, elderly women who are battling common forms of cancers have greater susceptibility towards side effects of irradiation therapy handling.[4]
  • It’s been found that, there are many different side effects of radioactivity therapy, some more severe than others.[4]
  • It looks that, adverse Effects of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer Long-Condition Follow-Up of the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial.[5]
  • It is clear that, skin irritation is one of the main side effects of radiation therapy.[6]
  • Finally, one can believe that, longterm effects of radioactivity therapy | Cancer Survivors Network (i.e., net, or rete) are found
    here.[7]

Terminology


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15??????24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Susceptibility

  1. Likelihood of an individual to develop ill effects
    from an external agent, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high altitude, or
    ambient temperature.
  2. In magnetic resonance imaging, the loss of
    magnetization signal caused by rapid phase dispersion because of marked local
    inhomogeneity of the magnetic field, as with the multiple air??????soft tissue
    interfaces in the lung.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Brachytherapy

Radiotherapy in which the source of irradiation is placed close to the surface of the body or within a body cavity; application of radium to the cervix.


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Encephalon

That portion of the cerebrospinal axis contained within the cranium, composed of the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon.


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Coordination

The harmonious working together, especially of several muscles or muscle groups in the execution of complicated movements.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Rete

A structure composed of a fibrous network or mesh


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Radioisotope

An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation.


Systemic

Relating to a system; specifically somatic, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.


Monoclonal

In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.


Cognitive

Pertaining to cognition.


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Pilus

A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous in function to the flagellum, which occurs on some bacteria. Although they can be chemically similar to flagella, pili consist only of protein and are shorter, straighter, and more numerous. Specialized pili (F pili, I pili, and other conjugative pili) seem to mediate bacterial conjugation and bacterial attachment to host cells during the infective process


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Gamma rays

electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive substances; they are high-energy x-rays but originate from the nucleus rather than the orbital shell and are not deflected by a magnet.


Rectal

Relating to the rectum.


Oncology

The study or science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of neoplasms, including causation, pathogenesis, and treatment.


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Radioactivity

The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (???? and ???? rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in disintegrations per second (dps). One dps is equal to 1 becquerel, and 3.7 ???? 1010 dps equals 1 curie.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Implant

  1. To graft or insert.
  2. A surgically inserted or imbedded graft or device;
    also, a zone of cells or tissue transferred from another site through a
    developmental error or neoplastic process.


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Radiation therapy

  1. treatment with x-rays or radionuclides.
  2. See radiation
    oncology


Medicinal

Relating to medicine having curative properties


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Cosmic rays

high-velocity particles of enormous energies, bombarding earth from outer space; the ??????primary radiation?????? consists of protons and more complex atomic nuclei that, on striking the atmosphere, give rise to neutrons, mesons, and other less energetic ??????secondary radiation.??????


Gamma

  1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet, ????.
  2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 10??????9 T.


Radiation

radiophobia.


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any
    structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Irradiation

  1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen
    against a dark background.
  2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation
    (heat, light, x-rays).
  3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in
    the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Medical

Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine


Radioactive

Possessing radioactivity


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


Preoperative

Preceding an operation.

Related Material

  1. Long-term Effects Of Radiation Therapy | LIVESTRONG.COM
  2. Radiation therapy – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  3. Brain Radiation Side Effects
  4. Long-term Side Effects of Radiation Therapy | eHow.com
  5. Adverse Effects of Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer: Long-Term Follow-Up of the Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial
  6. Lung Cancer Radiation Side Effects

  7. Longterm effects of radiation therapy | Cancer Survivors Network

Cancer Talampanel

Cancer Talampanel

Cancer Talampanel

If we consider cell, than we can suggest that cancer, and growth cancer will be associated with higher importance. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. This is a set of four pieces of info for the concept (i.e., conception) cancer pertaining to cells, breast (i.e., mamma, or teat), prostate (i.e., prostata, or glandula prostatica), and growth cells to further consider:

For cancer cells, we could point (i.e., punctum) out the following relevant items. Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland). Prostate is a gland in the male (i.e., masculine) reproductive system (i.e., genital system). The prostate surrounds the part of the urethra (the tube (i.e., tuba) that empties the bladder) just below the bladder, and produces a fluid that forms part of the semen (i.e., seed, or seminal fluid).

  1. It looks that, it may damage the Dna in malignant neoplastic disease cells.[2]
  2. It could appear apparant that, it inhibits the growth of cancer cells by preventing cell division (i.e., divisio).[2]
  3. It really is apparent that, talabostat may assist the immune system block (i.e., atrioventricular block) the growth of cancer cells.[2] Talabostat is a gist being studied in the treatment of malignant neoplastic disease, including certain types of lung (i.e., pulmo), pancreas, and brain cancer. Lung, one of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body. Pancreas is a glandular organ located in the abdomen (i.e., venter). It makes pancreatic juices, which contain enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. Pancreatic, having to do with the pancreas. The pancreas is surrounded by the stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus), intestines, and other organs. Stomach is an organ that is part of the digestive (i.e., digestant) system. The stomach helps digest food by mixing it with digestive juices and churning it into a thin liquid. Talabostat may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells. It may also increase the increment of new blood cells. It is a type of enzyme inhibitor. As well called PT-100 and talabostat mesylate. Immune system is the complex (i.e., sequence)
    group of organs and cells that defends the body against infections and other
    diseases.
  4. It appears to be that, differentiating agents may be effective in changing cancer cells back into normal cells.[2]
  5. You can view (i.e., projection), the four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.[2] Microscope is an instrument that is used to look at cells and other small objects that cannot be seen with the eye (i.e., oculus) alone.
  6. It is often discovered that, monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to cancer cells.[2]
  7. It’s possible to recognize, one type of white (i.e., albicans) blood cell that attacks virus (i.e., filtrable virus)-infected cells, strange cells, and malignant neoplastic disease cells.[2] Blood is a tissue with red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other substances suspended in fluid called plasma (i.e., blood plasma). Blood takes oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and carries away wastes. Virus is in medicine, a very simple microorganism that infects cells and may
    cause disease. Because viruses can multiply only inside infected cells, they
    are not considered to be alive.
  8. It would appear that, a protein/sugar complex found on the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of many cancer cells, including breast, colon, and pancreatic cells.[2] Protein is a molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly. They are the basis (i.e., base) of body structures, such as skin and hair (i.e., pilus), and of other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies. Colon is the longest part of the large intestine (i.e., intestinum crassum), which is a tube-like organ connected to the small intestine (i.e., intestinum tenue) at one end and the anus (i.e., anal orifice) at the other. The colon removes water (i.e., aromatic water) and some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food. The remaining material, solid waste called stool (i.e., evacuation), moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the body
    through the anus.
  9. It’s possible to recognize, it is used to test for remaining or recurring cancer cells in patients who have been treated for thyroid cancer.[2] Thyroid is a gland located beneath the larynx (voice (i.e., vox) box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin (i.e., thyrocalcitonin). The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism. Also called thyroid gland (i.e., glandula thyroidea, or thyroid body). Thyroid cancer, cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base of the throat (i.e., gullet) that makes hormones that help control heart (i.e., cor, or coeur) rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary (i.e., medullar), and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are
    based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope.
  10. It really is apparent that, the tegafur is taken up by the cancer cells and breaks down into five-FU, a substance that kills tumor (i.e., neoplasm) cells.[2] Tegafur is an anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antimetabolites. Tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign
    (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called neoplasm (i.e., new growth,
    or tumor).
  11. It really is apparent that, it may stoppage cancer cell raiseth by blocking certain enzymes and by preventing the growth of new blood vessels needed for tumors to grow.[2]

The following four items, tend to be breast cancer appropriate:

  1. One can view, a cancer vaccine (i.e., vaccinum (i.e., vaccine)) comprised of multiple synthetic breast cancer peptides and the adjuvant tetanus toxoid (i.e., anatoxin, or see entries under vaccine) helper peptide emulsified in the adjuvant Montanide Isa-51 with immunopotentiation activity.[1] Breast cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple (i.e., papilla mammae, or mammilla)) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male breast (i.e., mamma masculina, or mamma virilis) cancer is rare. Tetanus toxoid is a substance that is derived from the toxin released by the bacteria that causes the disease tetanus. It is used as a vaccine to prevent tetanus or to help boost the immune reaction to other vaccines. Vaccine is a subject matter (i.e., substance) or group of substances meant to cause the immune scheme (i.e., schema) to respond to a tumor or to microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses. A vaccine can help the body realise and destroy malignant neoplastic disease cells or microorganisms. Cancer vaccine is a type of vaccinum that is usually made from a patient’s own neoplasm cells or from substances taken from tumor cells. A malignant neoplastic disease vaccine may help the immune system kill cancer cells. Also called cancer handling vaccine. Montanide ISA-51 is a mixture of oil colour and h2o that is combined with a specific antigen to boost the immune response to that antigen. It is being studied in immunotherapy (i.e., biologic immunotherapy) and as a way to increase the immune response to malignant neoplastic disease vaccines. It is a type of immune modulator. Likewise called IFA and incomplete Freund‘s adjuvant. Synthetic, having to perform with
    substances that are man-made instead of taken from nature.
  2. You can notice, examples of tumor markers include CA one hundred twenty five (ovarian cancer), CA 15-3 (breast cancer), Cea (ovarian, lung, breast, pancreas, and gastrointestinal tract (i.e., tractus) cancers), and Psa (prostate cancer.[2] Ovarian, having to do with the ovaries, the female reproductive glands in which the ova (eggs) are formed. The ovaries are located in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus (i.e., metra, or womb). Gastrointestinal tract is the stomach and intestines. The gastrointestinal tract is part of the digestive system (i.e., alimentary system), which also includes the salivary (i.e., sialic, or sialine) glands, mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium), esophagus, liver (i.e., hepar), pancreas, gallbladder (i.e., vesica biliaris, or vesica fellea), and rectum. Gastrointestinal, refers to the stomach and intestines. Also called GI. Prostate cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men. CA 15-3 is a protein found on epithelial cells that is region (i.e., regio) of a larger protein called MUC 1. CA 15-3 may be found in higher than normal amounts in patients with some types of cancer, including bosom cancer. Measuring the amount of CA 15-3 in the blood may be utile in checking how well cancer treatment is working or if cancer has come back. CA 15-3 is a type of neoplasm marking. PSA is a protein made by the prostate gland (i.e., prostate) and found in the blood. PSA blood levels may be higher than normal in men who have prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia (i.e., numeric hypertrophy, or quantitative hypertrophy) (Bph), or infection or inflammation of the prostate gland. Also called prostate-specific antigen. CEA is a subject matter that may be found in the blood of people who have colon malignant neoplastic disease, other types of cancer or diseases, or who smoke tobacco. CEA levels may help hold trail (i.e., apo-2l) of how well cancer treatments are working or if cancer has come back. It is a type of neoplasm mark. Likewise called carcinoembryonic antigen. Ovarian cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary (i.e., ovarium, or female gonad) (one of a pair of female reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, are formed). Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or malignant germ cell (i.e., sex cell) tumors (cancer
    that begins in egg cells).
  3. It is clear that, a drug that is used to treat advanced prostate malignant neoplastic disease, and is being studied in the treatment of bosom cancer.[2]
  4. It would seem to be apparant that, a drug used together with other drugs to treat certain types of breast malignant neoplastic disease, stomach cancer, prostate cancer, and certain types of head (i.e., caput) and cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus) cancer.[2] Stomach cancer, cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called gastric
    (i.e., gastricus) cancer.

Cancer Talampanel related breakthroughs contain, but aren’t limited to:

  • One can view, for instance, the tumor volume of prostate gland cancer is the percentage of the prostate taken up by the tumor.[2] Tumor volume is
    the size of a cancer measured by the amount of space (i.e., spatium) taken up
    by the neoplasm. For example, the tumor volume of prostate cancer is the
    percentage of the prostate taken up by the tumor.

In summary we could declare that Cancer Talampanel has an influence on cancer cell.

Terminology


Neoplasm

An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer)


Metabolism

  1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes
    occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert
    small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert
    large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well
    as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
  2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either
    anabolism or catabolism.


Hypertrophy

General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation. Use of the term may be restricted to denote greater bulk through increase in size, but not in number, of cells or other individual tissue elements


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15??????24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Papillary

Relating to, resembling, or provided with papillae.


Inflammation

A fundamental pathologic process consisting of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent, including the local reactions and resulting morphologic changes; the destruction or removal of the injurious material; and the responses that lead to repair and healing. The so-called cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor, redness; calor, heat (or warmth); tumor, swelling; and dolor, pain; a fifth sign, functio laesa, inhibited or lost function, is sometimes added. All these signs may be observed in certain instances, but none is necessarily always present.


Bladder

  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
  2. See detrusor


Immunopotentiation

Enhancement of the immune response by increasing its rate or prolonging its duration.


Large intestine

the distal (aboral) portion of the digestive tube extending from the ileocecal valve to the anus; it comprises the cecum (with appendix), colon, rectum, and anal canal; shorter in length but larger in caliber than the small intestine, the large intestine functions to absorb fluids and electrolytes and provide temporary storage


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Calcitonin

A peptide hormone, of which eight forms in five species are known; composed of 32 amino acids and produced by the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymus glands; its action is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone in that calcitonin increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers the level of calcium in the blood; its level in the blood is increased by glucagon and by Ca2+ and thus opposes postprandial hypercalcemia


Mammilla

A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Reproductive

Relating to reproduction.


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Prostate

A chestnut-shaped body, surrounding the beginning of the urethra in the male, which consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts. Structurally, the prostate consists of 30??????50 compound tubuloalveolar glands among which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles. The secretion of the glands is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen


Atrioventricular block

partial or complete block of electrical impulses originating in the atrium or sinus node, preventing them from reaching the AV node and ventricles. In first-degree AV block, there is prolongation of AV conduction time (PR interval); in second-degree AV block, some but not all atrial impulses fail to reach the ventricles, thus some ventricular beats are dropped; in complete AV block (third degree), complete atrioventricular dissociation (2) occurs; atria and ventricles beat independently


Virus

  1. Formerly, the specific agent of an infectious
    disease.
  2. Specifically, a term for a group of infectious
    agents, which, with few exceptions, are capable of passing through fine
    filters that retain most bacteria, are usually not visible through the light
    microscope, lack independent metabolism, and are incapable of growth or
    reproduction apart from living cells. They have a prokaryotic genetic
    apparatus but differ sharply from bacteria in other respects. The complete
    particle usually contains either DNA or RNA, not both, and is usually covered
    by a protein shell or capsid that protects the nucleic acid. They range in
    size from 15 to several hundred nanometers. Classification of viruses depends
    on physiochemical characteristics of virions as well as on mode of
    transmission, host range, symptomatology, and other factors. For viruses not
    listed below, see the specific name.
  3. Relating to or caused by a virus, as a viral
    disease.
  4. Obsolete usage. From before the development of
    bacteriology, any agent thought to cause disease, including a chemical
    substance such as an enzyme (??????ferment??????) similar to snake venom;
    synonymous at that time with ??????poison.??????
  5. Synonyms filtrable virus


Insulin

A polypeptide hormone, secreted by ???? cells in the islets of Langerhans, which promotes glucose use, protein synthesis, and the formation and storage of neutral lipids; available in various preparations including genetically engineered human insulin, which is currently favored. Insulin is used parenterally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Alimentary system

the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus with all its associated glands and organs


Colon

The large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Ovarian

Relating to the ovary.


Larynx

The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles that control the position and tension of these elements.


Carcinoembryonic

Relating to a carcinoma-associated substance present in embryonic tissue, as a carcinoembryonic antigen.


Genital

  1. Relating to reproduction or generation.
  2. Relating to the primary female or male sex organs or
    genitals.
  3. Relating to or characterized by genitality.


Modulator

That which regulates or adjusts.


Toxoid

A toxin that has been treated (commonly with formaldehyde) so as to destroy its toxic property but retain its antigenicity, its capability of stimulating the production of antitoxin antibodies and thus of producing an active immunity


Microorganisms

microphobia.


Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


Throat

  1. The fauces and pharynx.
  2. The anterior aspect of the neck.
  3. Any narrowed entrance into a hollow part


Digestive

Relating to digestion


Ostium

A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


Pancreatic

Relating to the pancreas.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Monoclonal

In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.


Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


Cavity

  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
    caries


Vesica

Any hollow structure or sac, normal or pathologic, containing a serous fluid


Digestant

  1. Aiding digestion.
  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of
    digestion


Alimentary

Relating to food or nutrition.


Gastrointestinal tract

(G.I. tract) the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine; often used as a synonym of digestive tract.


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Ovary

One of the paired female reproductive glands containing the oocytes or germ cells; the ovaries stroma is a vascular connective tissue containing numbers of ovarian follicles enclosing the oocytes; surrounding this stroma is a more condensed layer of stroma called the tunica albuginea


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Seminal

  1. Relating to semen.
  2. Original or influential of future developments.


Immune response

  1. any response of the immune system to an antigen
    including antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity;
  2. the response of the immune system to an antigen
    (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune
    response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is
    detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to 2
    weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune
    response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary
    immune response.


Sequence

  1. The succession, or following, of one thing, process,
    or event after another; in dysmorphology, a pattern of multiple anomalies
    derived from a single known or presumed prior anomaly or mechanical factor.
  2. The imposition of a paricular order on a number of
    items


Pilus

A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous in function to the flagellum, which occurs on some bacteria. Although they can be chemically similar to flagella, pili consist only of protein and are shorter, straighter, and more numerous. Specialized pili (F pili, I pili, and other conjugative pili) seem to mediate bacterial conjugation and bacterial attachment to host cells during the infective process


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Rectum

The terminal portion of the digestive tube, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anal canal (perineal flexure).


Bacteria

Plural of bacterium.


Anaplastic

  1. Relating to anaplasty.
  2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia.
  3. Growing without form or structure.


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Freund

  1. Wilhelm A., German gynecologist, 1833??????1918.
  2. See Freund
    operation


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Punctum

  1. The tip or end of a sharp process.
  2. A minute round spot differing in color or otherwise
    in appearance from the surrounding tissues.
  3. A point on the optic axis of an optic system


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Epithelial

Relating to or consisting of epithelium.


Filtrable

Capable of passing a filter; frequently applied to smaller viruses and some bacteria.


Sex cell

a sperm or an oocyte


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Oral

Relating to the mouth.


Salivary

Relating to saliva


Gastric

Relating to the stomach


Tetanus

  1. A disease marked by painful tonic muscular
    contractions, caused by the neurotropic toxin (tetanospasmin) of Clostridium
    tetani acting on the central nervous system.
  2. A sustained muscular contraction caused by a series
    of nerve stimuli repeated so rapidly that individual muscular responses are
    fused, producing a sustained tetanic contraction.
  3. See emprosthotonos, opisthotonos


Thyroid

  1. Resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland)
    and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape.
  2. The cleaned, dried, and powdered thyroid gland
    obtained from one of the domesticated animals used for food and containing
    0.17??????0.23% of iodine; formerly widely used in the treatment of
    hypothyroidism, cretinism, and myxedema, in some cases of obesity, and in skin
    disorders.


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Small intestine

the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum (beginning of the large intestine); it consists of three portions duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; its primary function is the continued digestion of chyme and the absorption of nutrients into the lymphatic (fats) and portal venous system, through its mucosal surface, which is highly modified to provide surface area for this purpose


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Gallbladder

A pear-shaped organ on the inferior surface of the liver, in a hollow between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe; it serves as a storage reservoir for bile


Male breast

one of the two, usually rudimentary, mammary glands and overlying nipples of the male


Vaccine

Originally, the live vaccine (vaccinia, cowpox) virus inoculated in the skin as prophylaxis against smallpox and obtained from the skin of calves inoculated with seed virus. Usage has extended the meaning to include essentially any preparation intended for active immunologic prophylaxis; preparations of killed microbes of virulent strains or living microbes of attenuated (variant or mutant) strains; or microbial, fungal, plant, protozoal, or metazoan derivatives or products. Method of administration varies according to the vaccine, inoculation being the most common, but ingestion is preferred in some instances and nasal spray is used occasionally


Semen

The penile ejaculate; a thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid containing sperms; a mixture produced by secretions of the testes, seminal glands, prostate, and bulbourethral glands


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Germ

  1. A microbe; a microorganism.
  2. A primordium; the earliest trace of a structure
    within an embryo.


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Anal

Relating to the anus.


Adjuvant

  1. A substance added to a drug product formulation that
    affects the action of the active ingredient in a predictable way.
  2. immunology a vehicle used to enhance antigenicity; a
    suspension of minerals (alum, aluminum hydroxide, or phosphate) on which
    antigen is adsorbed; or water-in-oil emulsion in which antigen solution is
    emulsified in mineral oil (Freund incomplete adjuvant), sometimes with the
    inclusion of killed mycobacteria (Freund complete adjuvant) to enhance
    antigenicity further (inhibits degradation of antigen and/or causes influx of
    macrophages).
  3. Additional therapy given to enhance or extend primary
    therapy’s effect, as in chemotherapy’s addition to a surgical regimen.
  4. A treatment added to a curative treatment to prevent
    recurrence of clinical cancer from microscopic residual disease.


Anus

The lower opening of the digestive tract. It is associated with the anal sphincter and lies in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Apo-

Combining form usually meaning separated from or derived from.


Bph

Abbreviation for benign prostatic hyperplasia; Bachelor of Public Health.


Apo

Abbreviation for apoenzyme; apolipoprotein.


Liver

The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastric region; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1??????2 kg, or about one fortieth the weight of the body. As an exocrine gland, it secretes bile; it initially receives most absorbed nutrients through the portal vein; it detoxifies drugs and many exogeneous substances and is also of great importance in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; also stores glycogen


Orifice

Any aperture or opening


Thyroid gland

an endocrine (ductless) gland consisting of irregularly spheroid follicles, lying in front and to the sides of the upper part of the trachea and lower part of the larynx and of horseshoe shape, with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow central portion, the isthmus; and occasionally an elongated offshoot, the pyramidal lobe, which passes upward from the isthmus in front of the larynx. It is supplied by branches from the external carotid and subclavian arteries, and its nerves are derived from the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic system. It secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin


Medullary

Relating to the medulla or marrow


Isa

Abbreviation for intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Gonad

An organ that produces sex cells; a testis or an ovary.


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Eye

  1. The organ of vision that consists of the eyeball and
    the optic nerve;
  2. The area of the eye, including lids and other
    accessory organs of the eye; the contents of the orbit (common)


Hyperplasia

An increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased


Microorganism

A microscopic organism (plant or animal).


Lung

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Cea

Abbreviation for carcinoembryonic antigen; carotid endarterectomy.


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Head

  1. The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body,
    containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.
  2. The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or
    rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.
  3. The rounded extremity of a bone.
  4. That end of a muscle that is attached to the less
    movable part of the skeleton


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any
    structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Intestinum

Inward; inner


Psa

Abbreviation for prostate-specific antigen.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Pancreas

An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.


Tumor

  1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
  2. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor,
    dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus


Lac

Any whitish, milklike liquid


Immune reaction

reactin mediated by humoral or cell-mediated immune mechanisms.


Pelvis

  1. The massive cup-shaped ring of bone, with its
    ligaments, at the inferior end of the trunk, formed of the hip bone (the pubic
    bone, ilium, and ischium) on either side and in front of the sacrum and
    coccyx, posteriorly.
  2. Any basinlike or cup-shaped cavity, such as the
    pelvis of the kidney.


Follicular

Relating to a follicle or follicles.


Biologic

Relating to biology.


Simple

  1. Not complex or compound.
  2. In anatomy, composed of a minimum number of parts.
  3. A medicinal herb.


Esophagus

The portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25-cm long and consists of three parts the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Synthetic

Relating to or made by synthesis.


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Immunotherapy

Originally, therapeutic administration of serum or immune globulin containing preformed antibodies produced by another individual. Currently, immunotherapy includes nonspecific systemic stimulation, adjuvant, active specific immunotherapy, and adoptive immunotherapy. New forms of immunotherapy include the use of monoclonal antibodies


Urethra

The canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.


Molecule

The smallest possible quantity of a di-, tri-, or polyatomic substance that retains the chemical properties of the substance.


Dioxide

A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


Complex

  1. An organized constellation of feelings, thoughts,
    perceptions, and memories that may be in part unconscious and may strongly
    influence associations and attitudes.
  2. In jungian psychology, a personification of an
    archetype from the collective unconscious, residing in the personal
    unconscious.
  3. chemistry the relatively stable combination of two or
    more compounds into a larger molecule without covalent binding.
  4. A composite of chemical or immunologic structures.
  5. A structural anatomic entity made up of three or more
    interrelated parts.
  6. In electroencephalography, a recognizable series of
    waveforms that typically recur at intervals.
  7. An informal term used to denote a group of individual
    structures known or believed to be related anatomically, embryologically, or
    physiologically


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Heart

A hollow muscular organ that receives the blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries. In mammals it is divided by a musculomembranous septum into two halves??????right or venous and left or arterial??????each of which consists of a receiving chamber (atrium) and an ejecting chamber (ventricle)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Cancer Centers of Florida
  2. cholangiocarcinoma.org :: glossary t

Cancer-complex Disease

Cancer Slide 2 Cancer-complex Disease

Cancer Slide 2 Cancer-complex (i.e., sequence) Disease (i.e., illness, or morbus)

Regarding pancreatic cancer, we could point (i.e., punctum) out the following appropriate things. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Pancreatic, having to do with the pancreas. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Pancreas is a glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located in the abdomen (i.e., venter). It makes pancreatic juices, which check enzymes that aid in digestion, and it produces several hormones, including insulin. The pancreas is surrounded by the abdomen, intestines, and other organs. Malignant, cancerous. Malignant cells can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Also called exocrine (i.e., eccrine) cancer.

  1. One can believe that, in certain malignant neoplastic diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms oftentimes do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.[2] Stage is the extent of a cancer in the body. Staging is usually based on the size of the tumor (i.e., neoplasm),
    whether lymph nodes contain cancer, and whether the cancer has spread from the
    original site (i.e., situs) to other parts of the body.
  2. It’s apparent that, Pancreatic Cancer Slideshow Symptoms, Stages, Prognosis, Causes, and Treatments.[3]
  3. For example, pancreatic cancer is called a silent disease because symptoms typically perform not present in the ahead of time stages.[3]
  4. It would appear that, unfortunately, with pancreatic cancer, the malignant cells usually have spread past the pancreas at the point of diagnosis.[3] Diagnosis is the
    process (i.e., processus) of identifying a disease, such as cancer, from its
    signs and symptoms.

Moreover, we are able to make the following findings regarding Cancer Slide 2 Cancer-complex Disease :

  • Seemingly, because genes come in pairs (one inherited from each parent), an inherited flaw in one copy will not lead to malignant neoplastic disease because the other normal copy is still functional.[1] Inherited,
    transmitted through genes that have been passed from parents to their
    offspring (children).
  • One can view (i.e., projection), slide thirty four Bacteria and Stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus) Cancer.[1]
  • It seems to be, slide two Unlike Kinds of Cancer can be found here.[1]
  • It has been discovered that, slide thirty two Examples of Human Cancer Viruses is here.[1]
  • It would appear apparant that, slide thirty six Genetic
    endowment Can Affect Many Types of Cancer is discussed here.[1]
  • It seems that, slide twelve Ahead of time Cancer May Not Have Any Symptoms can be located here.[1]
  • Seemingly, included in this category are viruses implicated in cervical (i.e., cervicalis) malignant neoplastic disease, liver (i.e., hepar) malignant neoplastic disease, and certain lymphomas, leukemias, and sarcomas.[1] Liver is a large organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood and aids (i.e., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in digestion by secreting bile (i.e., gall). Cervical, relating to the neck (i.e., cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus), or collum), or to the neck of any organ or structure (i.e., structura). Cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck. Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle), narrow end (the neck ) of the uterus (i.e., metra, or womb).
  • Seemingly, contact your health concern provider if you develop symptoms of cancer.[2]
  • It’s possible to believe that, symptoms of cancer depend on the type and location of the cancer.[2]
  • Seemingly, cancerous cells are also called malignant cells.[2]
  • It is clear that, some cancers may not have any symptoms at all.[2]
  • Finally, it’s possible to assume that, the surgery would involve procedures to facilitate lessen some of the symptoms and prevent certain problems related to the size of the cancerous masses.[3] Mass is in medicine, a swelling in the organic structure. It may be caused by the abnormal growth of cells, a vesicle (i.e., vesicula), hormonal changes, or an immune response. A mass may be benign (not malignant neoplastic disease) or malignant (cancer). Surgery is a procedure to remove or repair a part of
    the body or to find out whether disease is present. An operation.

Terminology


Hormonal

Pertaining to hormones.


Neoplasm

An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer)


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Slide

A rectangular glass plate on which an object to be examined under the microscope is placed.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Exocrine

  1. Denoting glandular secretion delivered onto the body
    surface.
  2. Denoting a gland that secretes outwardly through
    excretory ducts


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Insulin

A polypeptide hormone, secreted by ???? cells in the islets of Langerhans, which promotes glucose use, protein synthesis, and the formation and storage of neutral lipids; available in various preparations including genetically engineered human insulin, which is currently favored. Insulin is used parenterally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Tubercle

  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic,
    sense.
  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the
    skin, mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the
    latter giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.
  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of
    a tooth.
  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm
    in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components,
    tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that
    usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1)
    an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous;
    2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large
    mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially
    (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence
    termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also
    be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes
    and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of
    fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable
    lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the
    term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians
    use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of
    undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


Bile

Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin, bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Immune response

  1. any response of the immune system to an antigen
    including antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity;
  2. the response of the immune system to an antigen
    (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune
    response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is
    detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to 2
    weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune
    response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary
    immune response.


Sequence

  1. The succession, or following, of one thing, process,
    or event after another; in dysmorphology, a pattern of multiple anomalies
    derived from a single known or presumed prior anomaly or mechanical factor.
  2. The imposition of a paricular order on a number of
    items


Syndrome

The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Bacteria

Plural of bacterium.


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Punctum

  1. The tip or end of a sharp process.
  2. A minute round spot differing in color or otherwise
    in appearance from the surrounding tissues.
  3. A point on the optic axis of an optic system


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Immunodeficiency

A condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism; may be primary (due to a defect in the immune mechanism itself) or secondary (dependent on another disease process), specific (due to a defect in either the B-lymphocyte or the T-lymphocyte system, or both) or nonspecific (due to a defect in one or another component of the nonspecific immune mechanism the complement, properdin, or phagocytic system)


Gall

An excoriation or erosion


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Cancerous

Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.


Liver

The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastric region; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1??????2 kg, or about one fortieth the weight of the body. As an exocrine gland, it secretes bile; it initially receives most absorbed nutrients through the portal vein; it detoxifies drugs and many exogeneous substances and is also of great importance in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; also stores glycogen


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Cervical

Relating to a neck, or cervix, in any sense


Genetic

Pertaining to genetics; genetical.


Uterine

Relating to the uterus.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Pancreas

An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.


Tumor

  1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
  2. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor,
    dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus


Staging

  1. The determination or classification of distinct
    phases or periods in the course of a disease or pathologic process.
  2. The determination of the specific extent of a disease
    process in an individual patient.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Vesicle

  1. A small bladder or bladderlike structure.
  2. A small ( less than 1.0 cm in diameter),
    circumscribed elevation of the skin containing fluid.
  3. A small sac containing liquid or gas.
  4. A closed structure surrounded by a single
    membrane.
  5. In fungi, the swollen apex of the conidiophore in
    Aspergillus and some Penicillium species, or the swollen apex of the
    sporangiophore in some zygomycetous species


Eccrine

Denoting the flow of sweat from skin glands unconnected to hair follicles


Complex

  1. An organized constellation of feelings, thoughts,
    perceptions, and memories that may be in part unconscious and may strongly
    influence associations and attitudes.
  2. In jungian psychology, a personification of an
    archetype from the collective unconscious, residing in the personal
    unconscious.
  3. chemistry the relatively stable combination of two or
    more compounds into a larger molecule without covalent binding.
  4. A composite of chemical or immunologic structures.
  5. A structural anatomic entity made up of three or more
    interrelated parts.
  6. In electroencephalography, a recognizable series of
    waveforms that typically recur at intervals.
  7. An informal term used to denote a group of individual
    structures known or believed to be related anatomically, embryologically, or
    physiologically


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Understanding Cancer Series: Cancer – National Cancer Institute
  2. Cancer – PubMed Health
  3. Pancreatic Cancer Slideshow: Symptoms, Stages, Prognosis, Causes, and Treatments

Cancer Glands Major Contributors Oral Tissues

Cancer Glands Major Contributors Oral Tissues

Cancer Glands Major Contributors Oral Tissues

The significance of salivari for glands, and minor glands can’t be more than explained. There shouldn’t be doubt regarding the relevancy associated with gland in salivary (i.e., sialic, or sialine (i.e., linea)), and minor salivary.

Regarding salivary glands we could identify the following common details, observations, and also entries:

  1. It might seem apparant that, treatment (Tx) focus should be along optimized/new approaches to further reduce the dose to the parotids, and particularly submandibular (i.e., inframandibular, or submaxillary) and nestling salivary glands, as these glands are major contributors to moistening of oral tissues.[2] Oral, by or having to do with the mouth (i.e., oral cavity (i.e., cavitas, or cavernous space), or ostium).
  2. One can identify, in summary, salivary gland hypofunction produces the following changes in the mouth that collectively cause patient discomfort and increased risk of infection of oral lesions Increase in salivary viscosity, with resultant impaired lubrication of oral tissues.[3]
  3. One can notice, there are many nodes located in the head (i.e., caput) and cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus) area, and careful rating of lymph (i.e., lympha) nodes is an important part of staging cancer of the major salivary glands (i.e., glandulae salivariae majores).[4] Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Lymph is the clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic (i.e., vas lymphaticum) system and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases. Also called lymphatic fluid. Staging, performing exams
    and tests to learn the extent of the cancer within the body, especially
    whether the disease has spread from the original site (i.e., situs) to other
    parts of the body. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order
    to plan the best treatment.
  4. It’s been found that, a neoplasm (i.e., new growth, or tumor) (benign or cancerous) can start in any of the major or minor salivary glands (i.e., glandulae salivariae minores).[4] Benign, not cancerous. Benign tumors may grow larger
    but do not spread to other parts of the body. Also called nonmalignant.
  5. It looks that, head and neck (i.e., cervix, or collum) malignant neoplastic disease is cancer of the oral bodily cavity, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses (i.e., sinus paranasales) and nasal cavity (i.e., cavitas nasi, or cavum nasi), pharynx, larynx, or lymph nodes in the upper part of the neck.[5] Larynx is the area of the throat (i.e., gullet) containing the vocal cords and used for breathing (i.e., pneusis), swallowing, and talking. Also called voice (i.e., vox) box. Pharynx is the hollow tube (i.e., tuba) inside the neck that starts behind the nose (i.e., nasus) and ends at the top of the trachea (i.e., windpipe) (windpipe (i.e., trachea)) and esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus)). The pharynx is about 5 inches long, depending on body size. Also called throat. Cavity is a hollow area or hollow. It may depict a body cavity (i.e., celom, or celoma) (such as the space (i.e., spatium) within the abdomen (i.e., venter)) or a hole in a tooth (i.e., dens) caused by disintegration.
  6. It’s apparent that, several other cancer types can develop in the salivary glands.[7]
  7. One can determine that, seldom, these cancers set out in immune system cells within the salivary glands.[7] Immune system is the complex (i.e., sequence) group of organs
    and cells that defends the body against infections and other diseases.
  8. One can determine, a serious side effect (i.e., adverse effect) of high-activity radioiodine therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia) in the handling of differentiated thyroid cancer is radiogenic salivary secretory organ damage.[8] Therapy, treatment. Side effect is a problem that occurs when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Some common side effects of cancer treatment are fatigue, pain, nausea (i.e., sicchasia), vomiting (i.e., emesis, or vomition), decreased blood cell counts, hair (i.e., pilus) loss, and mouth sores. Thyroid cancer, cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (i.e., glandula thyroidea, or thyroid body) (an organ at the base (i.e., basis, or basement) of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart (i.e., cor, or coeur) rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary (i.e., medullar), and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope. Thyroid is a gland located beneath the larynx (voice box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin (i.e., thyrocalcitonin). The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism. Also called thyroid gland.
  9. It’s been discovered that, squamous (i.e., scaly) cell cancers are uncommon in salivary gland tissue.[9] Squamous cell, flat cell that looks like a pisces the fishes scale (i.e., squama) under a microscope. These cells hatch inside and outside surfaces of the body. They are found in the tissues that form the open of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the organic structure (i.e., structura) (such as the bladder, kidney (i.e., ren, or nephros), and uterus (i.e., metra, or womb)), and the passages of the respiratory and digestive (i.e., digestant) tracts.

Cancer Glands Major Contributors Oral Tissues related findings contain, but aren’t limited by:

  • It would appear that, faulty dietary habits, environmental pollution, yeast/candida/parasite infestations, misuse/over-use of medications, inadequate sleep, relaxation and exercise, vitamin/mineral/nutrient deficiencies, and unbalanced mental/emotional states are (86%) MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS TO HEALTH PROBLEMS.[1] Vitamin is a nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Sources of vitamins are plant and animal food products and dietetical supplements. Some vitamins are made in the human body from nutrient products. Vitamins are either fat-soluble (can disband in fats and oils) or water (i.e., aromatic water)-soluble (can dissolve in water). Excess avoirdupois-soluble vitamins are stored in the body’s fat person tissue, but excess water-soluble vitamins are removed in the urine. Examples are vitamin a (i.e., axerophthol), vitamin C (i.e., ascorbic acid), and vitamin e (i.e., ????-tocopherol, or antisterility factor). Parasite is an animal or plant that gets nutrients by living on or in an organism of another species. A complete parasite gets all of its nutrients from the host organism, but a semifinal-parasite gets only some of its nutrients from the host. Mineral is in medicine, a mineral is a nutrient that is needed in little amounts to keep the organic structure healthy. Mineral nutrients include the elements calcium, magnesium, and press. Nutrient is a chemic compound (such as protein, fatty tissue (i.e., adipose tissue), carbohydrate, vitamin, or
    mineral) contained in foods. These compounds are used by the body to function
    and develop.
  • For instance, most cancerous tumors of this type begin in the parotid gland (i.e., glandula parotidea, or external salivary gland) or in the submandibular glands.[4]
  • It’s possible to conclude that, there is a risk that malignant neoplastic disease cells can spread to nearby lymph glands, the most.[6]
  • You can notice, adenoid (i.e., adeniform) cystic carcinoma is the most common type of malignant neoplastic disease in the nestling salivary glands.[7] Carcinoma, cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs. Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a rare type of malignant
    neoplastic disease that usually begins in the salivary glands.
  • Finally, apparently, also have a look at wheaters, Chapter 13, pgs 251-262, Oral tissues.[10]

It can be explained that for Cancer Glands Major Contributors Oral Tissues, salivari glands will be worth focusing on.

Terminology


Neoplasm

An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer)


Metabolism

  1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes
    occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert
    small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert
    large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well
    as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
  2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either
    anabolism or catabolism.


Dissolve

To change or cause to change from a solid to a dispersed form by immersion in a fluid of suitable properties.


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Papillary

Relating to, resembling, or provided with papillae.


Fatigue

  1. That state, following a period of mental or bodily
    activity, characterized by a lessened capacity or motivation for work and
    reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of
    weariness, sleepiness, irritability, or loss of ambition; may also supervene
    when, from any cause, energy expenditure outstrips restorative processes and
    may be confined to a single organ.
  2. Sensation of boredom and lassitude due to absence of
    stimulation, monotony, or lack of interest in one’s surroundings.


Tx

Abbreviation for individual thromboxanes, designated by capital letters with subscripts indicating structural features.


Adenoid

  1. Glandlike; of glandular appearance.
  2. Epithelial and lymphatic unencapsulated structure
    located on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. It undergoes absolute and
    relative enlargement during childhood and regresses during puberty.
    Inflammatory and physiologic enlargement is associated with otitis media,
    nasal obstruction, sinusitis, and obstructive sleep apnea


Bladder

  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
  2. See detrusor


Radioiodine

A radioactive isotope of iodine, 123I.


Avoirdupois

A system of weights in which 16 ounces make 1 pound, equivalent to 453.59237 g. See Weights and Measures Appendix.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Pollution

Rendering unclean or unsuitable by contact or mixture with an undesired contaminant.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Calcitonin

A peptide hormone, of which eight forms in five species are known; composed of 32 amino acids and produced by the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymus glands; its action is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone in that calcitonin increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers the level of calcium in the blood; its level in the blood is increased by glucagon and by Ca2+ and thus opposes postprandial hypercalcemia


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Dens

A strong toothlike process projecting upward from the body of the axis (second cervical vertebra), or epistropheus, around which the atlas rotates


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Animal

  1. A living, sentient organism that has membranous cell
    walls, requires oxygen and organic foods, and is capable of voluntary
    movement, as distinguished from a plant or mineral.
  2. One of the lower animal organisms as distinguished
    from humans.


Larynx

The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles that control the position and tension of these elements.


Body cavity

the collective visceral cavity of the trunk (thoracic cavity plus abdominopelvic cavity), bounded by the superior thoracic aperture above, the pelvic floor below, and the body walls (parietes) in between


????

  1. The 13th letter of the Greek alphabet, nu.
  2. Symbol for kinematic viscosity; frequency;
    stoichiometric number.
  3. In chemistry, denotes the position of a substituent
    located on the thirteenth atom from the carboxyl or other functional group.


Paranasal

Near or adjacent to the nose.


Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


Throat

  1. The fauces and pharynx.
  2. The anterior aspect of the neck.
  3. Any narrowed entrance into a hollow part


Digestive

Relating to digestion


Ostium

A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Ascorbic acid

A vitamin used in preventing scurvy, as a strong reducing agent, and as an antioxidant


Lymphatic

  1. Pertaining to lymph.
  2. A vascular channel that transports lymph.
  3. Sometimes used to pertain to a sluggish or phlegmatic
    characteristic


Nasal cavity

the cavity on either side of the nasal septum, lined with ciliated respiratory mucosa, extending from the naris anteriorly to the choana posteriorly, and communicating with the paranasal sinuses through their orifices in the lateral wall, from which also project the three conchae; the cribriform plate, through which the olfactory nerves are transmitted, forms the roof; the floor is formed by the hard palate


Nausea

An inclination to vomit


Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


Cavity

  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
    caries


Digestant

  1. Aiding digestion.
  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of
    digestion


Cystic carcinoma

a carcinoma in which true epithelium-lined cysts are formed, or degenerative changes may result in cystlike spaces.


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Sequence

  1. The succession, or following, of one thing, process,
    or event after another; in dysmorphology, a pattern of multiple anomalies
    derived from a single known or presumed prior anomaly or mechanical factor.
  2. The imposition of a paricular order on a number of
    items


Infection

Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease.


Pilus

A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous in function to the flagellum, which occurs on some bacteria. Although they can be chemically similar to flagella, pili consist only of protein and are shorter, straighter, and more numerous. Specialized pili (F pili, I pili, and other conjugative pili) seem to mediate bacterial conjugation and bacterial attachment to host cells during the infective process


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Anaplastic

  1. Relating to anaplasty.
  2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia.
  3. Growing without form or structure.


Trachea

The air tube extending from the larynx into the thorax to the level of the fifth or sixth thoracic vertebra where it bifurcates into the right and left bronchi. The trachea is composed of 16??????20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage connected by a membrane (anular ligament); posteriorly, the rings are deficient for one fifth to one third of their circumference, the interval forming the membranous wall being closed by a fibrous membrane containing smooth muscular fibers. Internally, the mucosa is composed of a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with mucous goblet cells; numerous small mixed mucous and serous glands occur, the ducts of which open to the surface of the epithelium


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Submandibular

  1. Beneath the mandible or lower jaw.
  2. Denoting certain ducts, fossae, ganglia, glands,
    lymph nodes, or a triangle of the neck, below the mandible


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Dietary

Relating to the diet.


Excess

That which is more than the usual or specified amount.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Sicchasia

Loathing for food


Oral

Relating to the mouth.


Salivary

Relating to saliva


Major salivary glands

a category of salivary glands’s that secrete intermittently; includes the three largest glands of the oral cavity, which also secrete most of the saliva the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands


Thyroid

  1. Resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland)
    and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape.
  2. The cleaned, dried, and powdered thyroid gland
    obtained from one of the domesticated animals used for food and containing
    0.17??????0.23% of iodine; formerly widely used in the treatment of
    hypothyroidism, cretinism, and myxedema, in some cases of obesity, and in skin
    disorders.


Radiogenic

  1. Producing rays of any sort, especially
    electromagnetic rays.
  2. Caused by x- or gamma rays.


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Emesis

Combining form, used in the suffix position, for vomiting


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Secretory

Relating to secretion or the secretions.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Adverse effect

a result of drug or other therapy in addition to or in extension of the desired therapeutic effect; usually but not necessarily, connoting an undesirable effect. Although technically the therapeutic effect carried beyond the desired limit (a hemorrhage from an anticoagulant) is a side effect, the term more often refers to pharmacologic results of therapy unrelated to the usual objective (a development of signs of Cushing syndrome with steroid therapy)


Viscosity

In general, the resistance to flow or alteration of shape by any substance as a result of molecular cohesion; most frequently applied to liquids as the resistance of a fluid to flow because of a shearing force.


Pisces

A superclass of vertebrates, generally known as fish; the term is sometimes confined to the bony fishes.


Species

  1. A biologic division between the genus and a variety
    or the individual; a group of organisms that generally bear a close
    resemblance to one another in the more essential features of their
    organization, and breed effectively producing fertile progeny.
  2. A class of pharmaceutical preparations consisting of
    a mixture of dried plants, not pulverized, but in sufficiently fine division
    to be conveniently used in the making of extemporaneous decoctions or
    infusions, as a tea.


Cancerous

Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.


Candida

A genus of yeastlike fungi, formerly called Monilia, commonly found in nature; a few species are isolated from the skin, feces, and vaginal and pharyngeal tissue, but the gastrointestinal tract is the source of the single most important species, Candida albicans. Formerly called Monilia.


Vitamin

One of a group of organic substances, present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs, that are essential to normal metabolism; insufficient amounts in the diet may cause deficiency diseases.


Hypofunction

Reduced, low, or inadequate function.


Parotid gland

the largest of the salivary glands, one of the bilateral compound acinous glands situated in the parotid bed, inferior and anterior to the ear, on either side, extending from the angle of the jaw inferiorly, to the zygomatic arch superiorly, posteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and medially into the infratemporal fossa, deep to the ramus of the mandible; it is subdivided into a superficial part (pars superficialis) and a deep part (pars profunda) by emerging branches of the facial nerve, and discharges in seromucous saliva through the parotid duct


Urine

The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.


Minor salivary glands

the smaller, largely mucus-secreting exocrine glands of the oral cavity, consisting of the labial, buccal, molar, lingual, and palatine glands; unlike the major salivary glands, the minor salivary glands, secrete continuously


Cavernous space

an anatomic cavity with many interconnecting chambers


Thyroid gland

an endocrine (ductless) gland consisting of irregularly spheroid follicles, lying in front and to the sides of the upper part of the trachea and lower part of the larynx and of horseshoe shape, with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow central portion, the isthmus; and occasionally an elongated offshoot, the pyramidal lobe, which passes upward from the isthmus in front of the larynx. It is supplied by branches from the external carotid and subclavian arteries, and its nerves are derived from the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic system. It secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin


Medullary

Relating to the medulla or marrow


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Dose

  1. The quantity of a drug or other remedy to be taken or
    applied all at one time or in fractional amounts within a given period.
  2. nuclear medicine amount of energy absorbed per unit
    mass of irradiated material (absorbed dose).


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Celom

The cavity between the splanchnic and somatic mesoderm in the embryo


Pharynx

The superior expanded portion of the alimentary tract, between the mouth and nasal cavities (superiorly and anteriorly) and the esophagus (inferiorly); consisting of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx, the first two being shared with the respiratory tract; the pharnyx is distinct from the rest of the alimentary tract in being composed exclusively of voluntary skeletal muscle arranged in outer circular and inner longitudinal layers.


Organism

Any living individual, whether plant or animal, considered as a whole.


Head

  1. The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body,
    containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.
  2. The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or
    rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.
  3. The rounded extremity of a bone.
  4. That end of a muscle that is attached to the less
    movable part of the skeleton


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Squama

  1. A thin plate of bone.
  2. An epidermal scale


Tumor

  1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
  2. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor,
    dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus


Parasite

  1. An organism that lives on or in another and draws its
    nourishment therefrom.
  2. In the case of a fetal inclusion or conjoined twins,
    the usually incomplete twin that derives its support from the more nearly
    normal autosite.


Follicular

Relating to a follicle or follicles.


Focus

  1. The point at which the light rays meet after passing
    through a convex lens.
  2. The center, or the starting point, of a disease
    process.


Adipose tissue

a form of connective tissue consisting chiefly of fat cells surrounded by reticular fibers and arranged in lobular groups or along the course of one of the smaller blood vessels


Cavernous

Relating to a cavern or a cavity; containing many cavities.


Esophagus

The portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25-cm long and consists of three parts the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.


Respiratory

Relating to respiration.


Squamous

Relating to or covered with scales


Staging

  1. The determination or classification of distinct
    phases or periods in the course of a disease or pathologic process.
  2. The determination of the specific extent of a disease
    process in an individual patient.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Vitamin a

  1. any ????-ionone derivative, except provitamin A
    carotenoids, possessing qualitatively the biologic activity of retinol;
    deficiency interferes with the production and resynthesis of rhodopsin,
    thereby causing night blindness, and produces a keratinizing metaplasia of
    epithelial cells that may result in xerophthalmia, keratosis, susceptibility
    to infections, and retarded growth;
  2. the original vitamin A, now known as retinol


Vitamin e

generic descriptor of tocol and tocotrienol derivatives possessing the biologic activity of ????-tocopherol; contained in various oils (wheat germ, cotton seed, palm, rice) and whole grain cereals where it constitutes the nonsaponifiable fraction; also contained in animal tissue (liver, pancreas, heart) and lettuce; deficiency produces resorption or abortion in female rats and sterility in males


Cystic

  1. Relating to the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
  2. Relating to a cyst.
  3. Containing cysts.


Vas

A duct or canal conveying any liquid, such as blood, lymph, chyle, or semen.


Fatty tissue

in some animals, brown fat


Soluble

Capable of being dissolved.


Disintegration

  1. Loss or separation of the component parts of a
    substance, as in catabolism or decay.
  2. Disorganization of psychic and behavioral
    processes.


Complex

  1. An organized constellation of feelings, thoughts,
    perceptions, and memories that may be in part unconscious and may strongly
    influence associations and attitudes.
  2. In jungian psychology, a personification of an
    archetype from the collective unconscious, residing in the personal
    unconscious.
  3. chemistry the relatively stable combination of two or
    more compounds into a larger molecule without covalent binding.
  4. A composite of chemical or immunologic structures.
  5. A structural anatomic entity made up of three or more
    interrelated parts.
  6. In electroencephalography, a recognizable series of
    waveforms that typically recur at intervals.
  7. An informal term used to denote a group of individual
    structures known or believed to be related anatomically, embryologically, or
    physiologically


Kidney

One of the paired organs that excrete urine, remove nitrogenous wastes of metabolism, reclaim important electrolytes and water, contribute to blood pressure control(renin-angiotensin system) and erythropoiesis (via erythropoietin production). The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about 11-cm long, 5-cm wide, and 3-cm thick, lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, opposite the 12th thoracic and 1st??????3rd lumbar vertebrae. In animals, the kidney has variable size and location


Vomiting

The ejection of matter from the stomach in retrograde fashion through the esophagus and mouth


Heart

A hollow muscular organ that receives the blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries. In mammals it is divided by a musculomembranous septum into two halves??????right or venous and left or arterial??????each of which consists of a receiving chamber (atrium) and an ejecting chamber (ventricle)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

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  5. Salivary Gland Cancer Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Survival, Treatment – MedicineNet
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  7. What is salivary gland cancer?
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Symptoms Bladder Cancer

Symptoms Bladder Cancer

Symptoms Bladder Cancer

There shouldn’t be question regarding the particular relevancy associated with bladder on cancer, and symptoms cancer. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Bladder is the organ that stores urine. Regarding cancer we could identify bladder, and symptoms bladder to be essential (i.e., intrinsic). It can be pointed out that symptom is actually in a big way influenced by bladder cancer, and know. Bladder cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the vesica (i.e., urinary bladder) (the organ that stores urine). Urine, fluid containing water (i.e., aromatic water) and waste products. Urine is made by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and leaves the body through the urethra. Kidney, one of a pair of organs in the abdomen (i.e., venter). The kidneys remove waste and extra water from the blood (as urine) and help keep chemicals (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) balanced in the body. The kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure and stimulate bone marrow to make red blood cells. Most bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in cells that unremarkably make up the inner lining of the bladder). Other types include squamous (i.e., scaly) cell carcinoma (malignant neoplastic disease that begins in thin, flat cells) and glandular (i.e., glandulous) carcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids). The cells that form squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (i.e., glandular cancer, or glandular carcinoma (i.e., adenocarcinoma)) develop in the inner lining of the vesica as a result of chronic irritation and inflammation.

You can find a minimum of nine things relevant to bladder cancer. They’re the following:

  1. It would seem apparant that, knowing the symptoms of bladder cancer and acting quickly at the first sign of a possible problem are effective ways to keep a lookout for this hard-to-diagnose disease.[1]
  2. It would seem apparant that, other symptoms of vesica cancer, such as fatigue, weight loss, and deficiency of appetite (i.e., orexia) are not usually present until the late stages of bladder cancer.[2] Fatigue is a condition marked by extreme tiredness and unfitness to function due lack of energy. Fatigue may be acute or chronic. Appetite is a desire to satisfy a physical or
    mental (i.e., genial, or genian) need, such as for food, sex, or adventure.
  3. It would seem apparant that, the initial signs and symptoms of bladder cancer are often mistaken for those of a urinary tract (i.e., tractus) infection or kidney stone (i.e., calculus).[2] Urinary tract is the organs of the body that bring forth and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, vesica, and urethra. Infection, invasion and multiplication of germs in the body. Infections can occur in any part of the body and can spread throughout the body. The germs may be bacteria, viruses, yeast, or fungi. They can cause a fever (i.e., febris, or pyrexia) and other problems, depending on where the infection occurs. When the body’s natural defense system is strong, it can often fight the germs and prevent infection. Some cancer treatments can weaken the natural defense system. Urinary, having to do
    with urine or the organs of the body that produce and get rid of urine.
  4. It’s possible to recognize, in this article we will be discussing the most common signs and symptoms of bladder cancer, as well as the causes and risks.[4]
  5. One can assume that, the most important thing for you is to know the signs and symptoms of bladder malignant neoplastic disease and report them to your medico immediately.[5]
  6. One can notice, changes in the frequency of a normal pattern of urination (i.e., miction, or micturition) and the sudden and urgent urge to void are symptoms of bladder cancer.[6]
  7. You can notice, blood in the urine, painfulness during urination, frequent urination, and lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle) back pain are possible symptoms of bladder cancer.[7] Blood is a tissue
    with red blood cells, white (i.e., albicans) blood cells, platelets, and other
    substances suspended in fluid called plasma (i.e., blood plasma). Blood takes
    oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and carries away wastes.
  8. One can believe that, because incontinence (i.e., incontinentia) is one of its symptoms, vesica cancer should be ruled out if bladder control is a problem.[8] Incontinence, inability to control the flow of urine from the bladder (urinary incontinence) or the escapism of stool (i.e., evacuation) from the rectum (fecal incontinence (i.e., incontinence of feces)).
  9. One can presume that, normally, signs and symptoms of vesica malignant neoplastic disease are not evident during the diseases early stages.[9]

Symptoms Bladder Cancer relevant discoveries consist of, but are not limited by:

  • For instance, others symptoms are discussed here.[2]
  • Finally, it’s that, blood in your urine (hematuria) is by far the most common symptom of vesica cancer, occurring in more than eighty percent of patients.[3] Hematuria, blood
    in the urine.

It should be pointed out that with regard to Symptoms Bladder Cancer, bladder cancer has a large degree of relevancy.

Terminology


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Fatigue

  1. That state, following a period of mental or bodily
    activity, characterized by a lessened capacity or motivation for work and
    reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of
    weariness, sleepiness, irritability, or loss of ambition; may also supervene
    when, from any cause, energy expenditure outstrips restorative processes and
    may be confined to a single organ.
  2. Sensation of boredom and lassitude due to absence of
    stimulation, monotony, or lack of interest in one’s surroundings.


Inflammation

A fundamental pathologic process consisting of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent, including the local reactions and resulting morphologic changes; the destruction or removal of the injurious material; and the responses that lead to repair and healing. The so-called cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor, redness; calor, heat (or warmth); tumor, swelling; and dolor, pain; a fifth sign, functio laesa, inhibited or lost function, is sometimes added. All these signs may be observed in certain instances, but none is necessarily always present.


Bladder

  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
  2. See detrusor


Deficiency

An insufficient quantity of some substance (as in dietary deficiency or hemoglobin deficiency in marrow aplasia), organization (as in mental deficiency), activity (as in enzyme deficiency or reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood), etc., of which the amount present is of normal quality.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Void

To evacuate urine or feces.


Squamous cell

a flat scalelike epithelial cell.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Incontinence of feces

the involuntary voiding of feces into clothing or bedclothes, usually due to pathology affecting sphincter control or loss of cognitive functions


Tubercle

  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic,
    sense.
  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the
    skin, mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the
    latter giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.
  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of
    a tooth.
  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm
    in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components,
    tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that
    usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1)
    an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous;
    2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large
    mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially
    (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence
    termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also
    be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes
    and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of
    fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable
    lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the
    term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians
    use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of
    undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


Fungi

A kingdom of eukaryotic organisms that grow in irregular masses, without roots, stems, or leaves, and are devoid of chlorophyll or other pigments capable of photosynthesis. Each organism (thallus) is unicellular to filamentous, and possesses branched somatic structures (hyphae) surrounded by cell walls containing glucan or chitin or both, and containing true nuclei. They reproduce sexually or asexually (spore formation), and may obtain nutrition from other living organisms as parasites or from dead organic matter as saprobes (saprophytes).


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Vesica

Any hollow structure or sac, normal or pathologic, containing a serous fluid


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Infection

Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease.


Incontinence

  1. Inability to prevent the discharge of any of the
    excretions, especially of urine or feces.
  2. Lack of restraint of the appetites, especially
    sexual


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Rectum

The terminal portion of the digestive tube, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anal canal (perineal flexure).


Bacteria

Plural of bacterium.


Urinary tract

the passage from the pelvis of the kidney to the urinary meatus through the ureters, bladder, and urethra.


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells with a glandular or glandlike pattern


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Urination

The passing of urine


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Chronic

  1. Referring to a health-related state, lasting a long
    time.
  2. Referring to exposure, prolonged or long-term,
    sometimes meaning also low intensity.
  3. The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics
    defines a chronic condition as one persisting 3 months or longer.


Stone

A British unit of weight for the human body, equal to 14 pounds


Cancer

cancerophobia, carcinophobia.


Orexia

The affective and conative aspects of an act, in contrast to the cognitive aspect


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Calculus

A concretion formed in any part of the body, most commonly in the passages of the biliary and urinary tracts; usually composed of salts of inorganic or organic acids, or of other material such as cholesterol


Germs

microphobia.


Transitional cell

any cell thought to represent a phase of development from one form to another.


Micturition

  1. The desire to urinate.
  2. Frequency of urination


Flow

  1. To bleed from the uterus less profusely than in
    flooding.
  2. The menstrual discharge.
  3. Movement of a liquid or gas; specifically, the volume
    of liquid or gas passing a given point per unit of time. In respiratory
    physiology, the symbol for gas flow is V and for blood flow is Q, followed by
    subscripts denoting location and chemical species.
  4. In rheology, a permanent deformation of a body that
    proceeds with time.


Urine

The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.


Hematuria

Presence of blood or red blood cells in the urine.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Urinary

Relating to urine.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Transitional

Relating to or marked by a transition; transitory.


Fecal

Relating to feces.


Squamous

Relating to or covered with scales


Feces

The matter discharged from the bowel during defecation, consisting of the undigested residue of food, epithelium, intestinal mucus, bacteria, and waste material


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Mucus

The clear viscid secretion of the mucous membranes, consisting of mucin, epithelial cells, leukocytes, and various inorganic salts dissolved in water.


Urethra

The canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

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Cancer Nucleotide (i.e., mononucleotide)

Cancer Nucleotide

Cancer Nucleotide (i.e., mononucleotide)

In the event that we all consider breast (i.e., mamma, or teat), than we can suggest that cancer, and cancer susceptibility will be of higher importance. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland). With respect to cancer we are able to determine breast, and breast susceptibility as being important.

Regarding single nucleotide polymorphisms, we can mention the following relevant things. Nucleotide is a building block (i.e., atrioventricular block) for nucleic acids (the molecules inside cells that carry genetical information). Nucleotides are attached terminate-to-terminate to form the nucleic acids Dna and RNA. RNA, one of two types of nucleic acid made by cells. RNA contains information that has been copied from DNA (the other type of nucleic acid). Cells make several different forms of RNA, and each form has a specific job in the cell. Many forms of RNA have functions related to making proteins. Protein is a molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body to function properly. They are the basis (i.e., base) of body structures, such as skin and hair (i.e., pilus), and of other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies. RNA is also the genetic material of some viruses instead of DNA. RNA can be made in the laboratory and used in research studies. Also called ribonucleic acid.

  1. One can determine that, genome-wide association studies, focusing primarily on unilateral breast cancer, have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a number of genomic regions that have alleles associated with a significantly increased risk of breast cancer.[1] Breast cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple (i.e., papilla mammae, or mammilla)) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male (i.e., masculine) breast (i.e., mamma masculina, or mamma virilis) cancer is rare. Genome is the complete genetic material of an organism. Unilateral, having to come with one side of the
    organic structure.
  2. One can identify, the researchers found that a group of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the third most common Esr2 gene in Ashkenazi women under study was associated with breast malignant neoplastic disease susceptibility.[2] ESR is the distance bolshie blood cells move around in one hour in a sample of blood as they settle to the bottom of a test tube. The sedimentation rate is increased in redness, infection, cancer, rheumatic (i.e., rheumatismal) diseases, and diseases of the blood and bone marrow. Also called erythrocyte (i.e., red blood cell, or red corpuscle) alluviation rate and sedimentation rate. Gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes
    are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a
    specific protein.
  3. One can view (i.e., projection), of seventeen single nucleotide polymorphisms (variations) of ESR1 under study, there were two polymorphisms associated with bosom cancer susceptibleness.[2]
  4. One can determine that, gold and his colleagues also found no association between breast cancer and thirteen single nucleotide polymorphisms in the progesterone (i.e., luteohormone, or pregnancy hormone) receptor gene.[2] Progesterone receptor is a protein found inside the cells of the female reproductive tissue, some other types of tissue, and some malignant neoplastic disease cells. The endocrine lipo-lutin will bind to the receptors inside the cells and may cause the cells to grow. Likewise called PR. Receptor is a corpuscle (i.e., corpusculum) inside or on the airfoil of a cell that binds to a specific substance and causes a specific effect in the cell. Progesterone is a type of hormone made by the body that plays a role in the catamenial cycle and pregnancy (i.e., fetation, or gestation). Progesterone can likewise be made in the laboratory. It may be used as a type of birth control and to treat catamenial disorders, sterility, symptoms of menopause, and other
    conditions.
  5. It would seem apparant that, ULike Rapid detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms related with lung (i.e., pulmo) malignant neoplastic disease susceptibleness of Chinese population.[4] Lung, one of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

Cancer Nucleotide appropriate discoveries contain, but aren’t restricted to:

  • It seems that, inhibition of a nucleotide translocase-2 by vector (i.e., recombinant vector)-based si.[3]
  • Apparently, RNA in human breast malignant neoplastic disease cells induces apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death (i.e., mors) (i.e., apoptosis)) and inhibits tumor (i.e., neoplasm) increase in vitro and in vivo.[3] In vivo is in the organic structure. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the testing ground). Tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Tumors may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called neoplasm (i.e., new growth, or tumor). In vitro is in the science lab (outside the body). The contrary of in vivo (in the body). Apoptosis is a type of cell death in which a series
    of molecular steps in a cell lead to its death. This is one method the body
    uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. The process (i.e., processus)
    of apoptosis may be blocked in cancer cells. Also called programmed cell
    death.
  • It’s that, adenine nucleotide (i.e., adenylic acid) translocase two is a key mitochondrial protein in cancer metabolism.[3] Adenine is a chemic compound that is used to make one of the building blocks of DNA and RNA. It is also a region of many substances in the body that give energy to cells. Adenine is a type of purine. Metabolism is the chemic changes that take spot (i.e., macula) in a cell or an organism. These changes make energy and the materials cells and organisms require to grow, reproduce, and stay healthy. Metabolism as well helps get rid of toxic (i.e., poisonous)
    substances.

Terminology


Neoplasm

An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer)


Metabolism

  1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes
    occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert
    small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert
    large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well
    as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
  2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either
    anabolism or catabolism.


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15??????24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Cycle

  1. A recurrent series of events.
  2. A recurring period of time.
  3. One successive compression and rarefaction of a wave,
    as of a sound wave.


Susceptibility

  1. Likelihood of an individual to develop ill effects
    from an external agent, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high altitude, or
    ambient temperature.
  2. In magnetic resonance imaging, the loss of
    magnetization signal caused by rapid phase dispersion because of marked local
    inhomogeneity of the magnetic field, as with the multiple air??????soft tissue
    interfaces in the lung.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Mammilla

A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Reproductive

Relating to reproduction.


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Atrioventricular block

partial or complete block of electrical impulses originating in the atrium or sinus node, preventing them from reaching the AV node and ventricles. In first-degree AV block, there is prolongation of AV conduction time (PR interval); in second-degree AV block, some but not all atrial impulses fail to reach the ventricles, thus some ventricular beats are dropped; in complete AV block (third degree), complete atrioventricular dissociation (2) occurs; atria and ventricles beat independently


Apoptosis

Programmed cell death; deletion of individual cells by fragmentation into membrane-bound particles, which are phagocytized by other cells


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Receptor

  1. A structural protein molecule on the cell surface or
    within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone,
    antigen, or neurotransmitter.
  2. Any one of the various sensory nerve endings in the
    skin, deep tissues, viscera, and special sense organs.


Vector

  1. An invertebrate animal (tick, mite, mosquito,
    bloodsucking fly) capable of transmitting an infectious agent among
    vertebrates.
  2. Anything (velocity, mechanical force, electromotive
    force) having magnitude and direction; it can be represented by a straight
    line of appropriate length and direction.
  3. The net electrical axis of any ECG wave (usually QRS)
    the length of which is proportional to the magnitude of the electrical force,
    the direction of which gives the direction of the force and the tip of which
    represents the positive pole of the force.
  4. DNA such as a chromosome or plasmid that autonomously
    replicates in a cell into which another DNA segment may be inserted and be
    itself replicated, as in cloning.
  5. Recombinant DNA systems especially suited for
    production of large quantities of specific proteins in bacterial, yeast,
    insect, or mammalian cell systems


Corpuscle

  1. A small mass or body.
  2. A blood cell


Genome

  1. A complete set of chromosomes derived from one
    parent, the haploid number of a gamete.
  2. The total gene complement of a set of chromosomes
    found in higher life forms (the haploid set in a eukaryotic cell), or the
    functionally similar but simpler linear arrangements found in bacteria and
    viruses.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Mitochondrial

Relating to mitochondria.


Sterility

  1. In general, the incapability of fertilization or
    reproduction.
  2. Condition of being aseptic, or free from all living
    microorganisms.
  3. See female
    sterility, male sterility


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Toxic

Pertaining to a toxin


Infection

Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease.


Pilus

A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous in function to the flagellum, which occurs on some bacteria. Although they can be chemically similar to flagella, pili consist only of protein and are shorter, straighter, and more numerous. Specialized pili (F pili, I pili, and other conjugative pili) seem to mediate bacterial conjugation and bacterial attachment to host cells during the infective process


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Sample

  1. A specimen of a whole entity small enough to involve
    no threat or damage to the whole; an aliquot.
  2. A selected subset of a population; a sample may be
    random or nonrandom (haphazard), representative or nonrepresentative.


Papilla

Any small, nipplelike process


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Nucleotide

Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names


Genetic material

the carrier of hereditary information; in higher organisms it is duplex DNA.


In vivo

In the living body, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein.


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Unilateral

Confined to one side only.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Heredity

  1. The transmission of characters from parent to
    offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells.
  2. Genealogy.


Settle

Acronym for spindle epithelial tumor (q.v.) with thymuslike elements.


Menopause

Permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure; termination of the menstrual life.


Endocrine

  1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic
    circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.
  2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless
    gland.
  3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal
    secretion.


Erythrocyte

A mature red blood cell


Genomic

Relating to a genome.


Key

  1. Ernst A.H., Swedish anatomist and physician,
    1832??????1901.
  2. See foramen of
    Key-Retzius, sheath of Key and Retzius


Sedimentation rate

the rate at which a sediment is deposited from a solution.


Test tube

a tube of thin glass closed at one end, used in the examination of urine and other chemical operations, for bacterial cultures, etc.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Esr

Abbreviation for erythrocyte sedimentation rate; electron spin resonance.


Birth control

  1. restriction of the number of offspring by means of
    contraceptive measures;
  2. projects, programs, or methods to control
    reproduction, by either improving or diminishing fertility.


Lung

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Rheumatic

Relating to or characterized by rheumatism


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


In vitro

In an artificial environment, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein, as in a test tube or culture medium.


Organism

Any living individual, whether plant or animal, considered as a whole.


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any
    structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Sedimentation

Formation of a sediment.


Pregnancy

maieusiophobia.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Recombinant

  1. A cell or organism that has received genes from
    different parental strains.
  2. Pertaining to or denoting such organisms.
  3. In linkage analysis, the change of coupling phase at
    two loci during meiosis. If two syntenic, nonallelic genes are inherited from
    the same parent, they must be in coupling. An offspring that inherits only one
    of them is recombinant and indicates an odd number of cross-overs between the
    loci; an offspring that inherits neither or both are nonrecombinant and may
    indicate an even number of cross-overs or none.


Adenylic acid

A condensation product of adenosine and phosphoric acid; a nucleotide found among the hydrolysis products of all nucleic acids. 3??????-Adenylic acid (adenosine 3??????-monophosphate) and 5??????-adenylic acid [adenosine 5??????-monophosphate (AMP)] differ in the place of attachment of the phosphoric acid to the d-ribose; deoxyadenylic acid differs in having H instead of OH at the 2?????? position of d-ribose


Tumor

  1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
  2. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor,
    dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus


Lac

Any whitish, milklike liquid


Cell death

the cessation of respiration within the cell that stops the production of energy, nutrients, active molecular transport, and the like.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Progesterone

An antiestrogenic steroid, believed to be the active principle of the corpus luteum, isolated from the corpus luteum and placenta or synthetically prepared; used to correct abnormalities of the menstrual cycle, as a contraceptive, and to control habitual abortion


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Macula

  1. A circumscribed flat area, up to 1 cm in diameter,
    differing perceptibly in color from the surrounding tissue.
  2. A small discolored patch or spot on the skin, neither
    elevated above nor depressed below the skin’s surface.
  3. The neuroepithelial sensory receptors of the utricle
    and saccule of the vestibular labyrinth collectively


Dioxide

A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with risk for contralateral breast cancer in the Women`s Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology (WECARE) study.
  2. Small Variations in Genes Can Determine Risk – National Cancer Institute
  3. Over-expression of Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 (ANT1) Induces Apoptosis and Tumor Regression in vivo
  4. CiteULike: Rapid detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms related with lung cancer susceptibility of Chinese population.