Cancer Lapatinib

Cancer Lapatinib

Cancer Lapatinib

If we consider breast (i.e., mamma, or teat), than we can suggest that cancer, and metastatic cancer will be associated with higher importance. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland). Metastatic, having to perform with metastasis (i.e.,
secondaries), which is the spread of cancer from the primary site (i.e., situs)
(place where it started) to other places in the organic structure (i.e.,
structura).

For breast cancer, we could point out the following relevant items. Breast cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple (i.e., papilla mammae, or mammilla)) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male (i.e., masculine) breast (i.e.,
mamma masculina, or mamma virilis) cancer is rare.

  1. It looks that, cancer ninety seven 29722977 (discussed in Blackwell K, Pegram M, Tan-Chiu E (2009)) Single-Agent lapatinib for the treatment of HER2-overexpressing advanced or metastatic breast cancer that progressed on first- or second-line trastuzumab containing regimens.[1] Lapatinib is a drug used with another anticancer drug to treat bosom cancer that is HER2 positive and has advanced or metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) after handling with other drugs. Lapatinib is also being studied in the treatment of other types of malignant neoplastic disease. It is a type of ErbB-2 and Egfr dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor. As well called GW572016, lapatinib ditosylate, and Tykerb. Trastuzumab is a drug used to treat breast cancer that is HER2-positive (expresses the human epidermal (i.e., epidermic) increase factor (i.e., gene) receptor 2). It is also used with other drugs to treat HER2-confirming stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus) cancer that has not already been treated and has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the handling of other types of malignant neoplastic disease. Trastuzumab binds to HER2 on the earth’s surface (i.e., face, or facies) of HER2-positive malignant neoplastic disease cells, and may kill them. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Likewise called Herceptin
    (i.e., transluzumab).
  2. It could appear apparant that, (in British Journal of Cancer) Lapatinib monotherapy in patients with relapsed, advanced, or metastatic bosom cancer efficaciousness, safety, and biomarker results from Japanese patients phase II studies.[1] Biomarker is a biological molecule
    found in blood, other organic structure fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a
    normal or abnormal process (i.e., processus), or of a condition or disease. A
    biomarker may be used to see how well the body responds to a treatment for a
    disease or discipline. Also called molecular marker and signature particle.
  3. It really is apparent that, rNAs also sensitized EGFR /Her2 breast cancer cells to lapatinib, to about the same degree as Bik.[2] EGFR is the protein
    found on the control surface of some cells and to which cuticular growth
    factor binds, causing the cells to divide. It is found at abnormally high
    levels on the surface of many types of cancer cells, indeed these cells may
    divide excessively in the presence of epidermal growth factor. Also called
    epidermal emergence factor receptor, ErbB1, and HER1.
  4. It appears to be that, dD Eliminates Breast Cancer Initiating Cells and Synergizes with Lapatinib for Breast Cancer Treatment (Tx).[2]
  5. You can view (i.e., projection), more specifically, the acquired resistance (i.e., hormone resistance) of breast malignant neoplastic disease cells to lapatinib has been linked with overexpression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1, suggesting that lapatinib-induced apoptosis (i.e., programmed cell death (i.e., mors) (i.e., apoptosis)) requires inactivation of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins.[2] Antiapoptotic, something that prevents caspase-mediated cell death. Apoptosis is a type of cell demise in which a series of molecular steps in a cell leads to its death. Apoptosis is a type of cell death in which a
    series of molecular steps in a cell lead to its death. This is one method the
    body uses to get rid of unneeded or abnormal cells. The process of apoptosis
    may be blocked in cancer cells. Also called programmed cell death.
  6. It is often discovered that, studies of phosphorylation and gene (i.e., factor) aspect (i.e., norma) changes in human breast cancer cell lines in the presence or absence of lapatinib.[3] Phosphorylation is a process in which a phosphate grouping is added to a molecule, such as a sugar or a protein. Gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of Dna, and most genes contain the
    information for making a specific protein.
  7. It’s possible to recognize, Irreversible ERBB2 inhibitors may offer alternative treatment options for breast malignant neoplastic disease and other solid tumor (i.e., neoplasm) patients harbouring lapatinib resistance mutations.[4] Solid tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that usually does not turn back cysts or liquid areas. Solid tumors may be benignant (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Unlike types of solid tumors are named for the type of cells that organize them. Examples of solid tumors are sarcomas, carcinomas, and lymphomas. Leukemias (cancers of the blood) generally fare not take form solid tumors. Tumor is an abnormal mass
    of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not
    give-up the ghost when they should. Tumors may be benignant (not cancer), or
    malignant (cancer). As well called tumour.
  8. It would appear that, bosom cancers, we would hold to assume that lapatinib is only worth adding at the time of escape from primary endocrine therapy.[5] Endocrine, refers to tissue that makes and releases hormones that move around in the bloodstream and control the actions of other cells or organs. Some examples of endocrine tissues are the pituitary (i.e., pituitarium), thyroidal, and adrenal glands. Endocrine therapy, treatment that adds, blocks, or removes hormones. For certain conditions (such as diabetes or menopause), endocrines are given to adjust low hormone levels. To slow up or stop the growth of certain cancers (such as prostate (i.e., prostata, or glandula prostatica) and bosom cancer), synthetic hormones or other drugs may be given to block the body’s natural hormones. Sometimes surgical operation is needed to remove the gland that makes a certain internal secretion. Likewise called hormonal
    therapy, hormone therapy, and hormone treatment.
  9. It’s possible to recognize, people with breast cancer that is not HER2 positive will not benefit from lapatinib at all.[7]

Cancer Lapatinib appropriate discoveries contain, but aren’t restricted to:

  • It would appear that, these are similarly, inhibiting.[2]
  • Apparently, of imprtance are  bcl-2, Bcl-x.[2]
  • For instance, l, and Mcl-1 using sh are discussed in this article.[2]
  • Finally, purpose to find out the overall survival for patients with metastatic pancreatic malignant neoplastic disease
    treated with lapatinib and gemcitabine is listed here.[6] Gemcitabine is the active ingredient in a drug that is used to treat pancreatic cancer that is advanced or has spread out. It is also used with other drugs to treat breast malignant neoplastic disease that has spread, advanced ovarian cancer, and non-small cell (i.e., oat cell) lung (i.e., pulmo) cancer that is advanced or has spread. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of malignant neoplastic disease. Gemcitabine blocks the cell from making DNA and may kill malignant neoplastic disease cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Overall survival is the length of time from either the date of diagnosing or the start of treatment for a disease, such as cancer, that patients diagnosed with the disease are still alive. In a clinical trial, measuring the overall survival is one way to understand how well a new treatment works. Also called Osmium. Pancreatic, having to do with the pancreas.

It may be explained that regarding Cancer Lapatinib, breast cancer is of importance.

Terminology


Hormonal

Pertaining to hormones.


Neoplasm

An abnormal tissue that grows by cellular proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease. Neoplasms show partial or complete lack of structural organization and functional coordination with the normal tissue, and usually form a distinct mass of tissue that may be either benign (benign tumor) or malignant (cancer)


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 1524 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Phosphorylation

Addition of phosphate to an organic compound, such as glucose to produce glucose monophosphate, through the action of a phosphotransferase (phosphorylase) or kinase.


Bloodstream

The flowing blood as it is encountered in the circulatory system, as distinguished from blood that has been removed from the circulatory system or sequestered in a part; thus, something added to the bloodstream may be expected to become distributed to all parts of the body through which blood is flowing.


Tx

Abbreviation for individual thromboxanes, designated by capital letters with subscripts indicating structural features.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Mammilla

A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Prostate

A chestnut-shaped body, surrounding the beginning of the urethra in the male, which consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts. Structurally, the prostate consists of 3050 compound tubuloalveolar glands among which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles. The secretion of the glands is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen


Apoptosis

Programmed cell death; deletion of individual cells by fragmentation into membrane-bound particles, which are phagocytized by other cells


Small cell

a short, bluntly spindle-shaped cell that contains a relatively large, hyperchromatic nucleus, frequently observed in some forms of undifferentiated bronchogenic carcinoma


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Biological

A diagnosic, pregentive, or therapeutic preparation derived or obtained from living organisms and their product, serum, vaccine, antigen, antitoxin.


Tyrosine kinase

an enzyme that phosphorylates tyrosyl residues on certain proteins; many are products of viral oncogenes; a number of receptors (receptors for epidermal growth factor, insulin, etc.) have this enzymatic activity; a misnomer, in that the physiologic substrate is not tyrosine but tyrosyl residues in a protein.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Ovarian

Relating to the ovary.


Receptor

  1. A structural protein molecule on the cell surface or
    within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone,
    antigen, or neurotransmitter.
  2. Any one of the various sensory nerve endings in the
    skin, deep tissues, viscera, and special sense organs.


Diabetes

Either diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus, diseases having in common the triad of symptoms polyuria, weight loss, and significant glucosuria; when used without qualification, refers to diabetes mellitus.


Pancreatic

Relating to the pancreas.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Monoclonal

In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein


Caspase

An enzyme implicated in apoptosis, which cleaves proteins after asparatic acid. (Thus, c aspase.)


Metastasis

  1. The shifting of a disease or its local manifestations,
    from one part of the body to another, as in mumps when the symptoms referable
    to the parotid gland subside and the testis becomes affected.
  2. The spread of a disease process from one part of the
    body to another, as in the appearance of neoplasms in parts of the body remote
    from the site of the primary tumor; results from dissemination of tumor cells
    by the lymphatics or blood vessels or by direct extension through serous
    cavities or subarachnoid or other spaces.
  3. Transportation of bacteria from one part of the body
    to another, through the bloodstream (hematogenous metastasis) or through lymph
    channels (lymphogenous metastasis)


Metastatic

Relating to metastasis.


Herceptin

A monoclonal antibody used in treating her 2 neu positive carcinoma of breast


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Pituitary

Relating to the pituitary gland (hypophysis)


Punctum

  1. The tip or end of a sharp process.
  2. A minute round spot differing in color or otherwise in
    appearance from the surrounding tissues.
  3. A point on the optic axis of an optic system


Papilla

Any small, nipplelike process


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Kinase

  1. Enzyme that catalyzes conversion of a proenzyme to an
    active one (enteropeptidase [enterokinase]). Important in salvage and
    recycling of nucleotides. Some antiviral agents work by inactivating viral or
    tumor kinases
  2. Suffix attached to some enzymes to indicate
    transformation.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Epidermal

Relating to the epidermis


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Secretion

  1. Production by a cell or aggregation of cells (a gland)
    of a physiologically active substance and its movement out of the cell or
    organ in which it is formed.
  2. The solid, liquid, or gaseous product of cellular or
    glandular activity that is stored in or used by the organism in which it is
    produced.


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Gene

A functional unit of heredity that occupies a specific place (locus) on a chromosome, is capable of reproducing itself exactly at each cell division, and directs the formation of an enzyme or other protein. The gene as a functional unit consists of a discrete segment of a giant DNA molecule containing the purine (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) bases in the correct sequence to code the sequence of amino acids of a specific peptide. Protein synthesis is mediated by molecules of messenger RNA formed on the chromosome with the gene acting as a template. The RNA then passes into the cytoplasm and becomes oriented on the ribosomes where it in turn acts as a template to organize a chain of amino acids to form a peptide. In organisms reproducing sexually, genes normally occur in pairs in all cells except gametes, as a consequence of the fact that all chromosomes are paired except the sex chromosomes (X and Y) of the male


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Heredity

  1. The transmission of characters from parent to
    offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells.
  2. Genealogy.


Menopause

Permanent cessation of the menses due to ovarian failure; termination of the menstrual life.


Endocrine

  1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic
    circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.
  2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless
    gland.
  3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal
    secretion.


Hormone

A chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where they exert functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity, and sometimes the structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them. Various hormones are formed by ductless glands, but molecules such as secretin, cholecystokinin/somatostatin, formed in the gastrointestinal tract, by definition are also hormones. The definition of hormone has been recently extended to chemical substances formed by cells and acting on neighboring cells (paracrine function) or the same cells that produce them (autocrine function). For hormones not listed below, see specific names.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Lung

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Adrenal

  1. Near or on the kidney; denoting the suprarenal
    (adrenal) gland.
  2. A suprarenal gland or separate tissue or product
    thereof.


Developmental disability

loss of function brought on by prenatal and postnatal events in which the predominant disturbance is in the acquisition of cognitive, language, motor, or social skills; mental retardation, autistic disorder, learning disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Pancreas

An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.


Tumor

  1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
  2. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor,
    dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus


Lac

Any whitish, milklike liquid


Mcl

Symbol for microliter.


Cell death

the cessation of respiration within the cell that stops the production of energy, nutrients, active molecular transport, and the like.


Clinical trial

a controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.


Surgical

Relating to surgery.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Synthetic

Relating to or made by synthesis.


Egfr

Abbreviation for epidermal growth factor receptor .


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Biomarker

A detectable cellular or molecular indicator of exposure, health effects, or susceptibility, which can be used to measure the absorbed, metabolized, or biologically effective dose of a substance, the response to the substance including susceptibility and resistance, idiosyncratic reactions, and other factors or conditions.


Bcl-2

An oncogene that inhibits apoptosis.


Molecule

The smallest possible quantity of a di-, tri-, or polyatomic substance that retains the chemical properties of the substance.


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


Antimetabolite

A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

Related Material

  1. British Journal of Cancer – Lapatinib monotherapy in patients with relapsed, advanced, or metastatic breast cancer: efficacy, safety, and biomarker results from Japanese patients phase II studies
  2. GEN | News Highlights:Scientists use Mutant Protein to Inhibit Cancer Stem Cells and Resensitize Tumors to Lapatinib
  3. Delineation of molecular mechanisms of sensitivity to lapatinib in breast cancer cell lines using global gene expression profiles
  4. PLoS ONE: Differential Sensitivity of ERBB2 Kinase Domain Mutations towards Lapatinib
  5. Does Lapatinib Work against HER2-negative Breast Cancers?
  6. Lapatinib and Gemcitabine for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer:… : American Journal of Clinical Oncology

  7. Lapatinib (Tyverb) | Breast Cancer Care

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