Cancer Special Studies

Cancer Special Studies

Cancer Special Studies

The following three items, tend to be poorly differentiated tumors relevant:

  1. It would seem apparant that, the cause of higher Fdg uptake in squamous (i.e., scaly) and poorly differentiated tumors remains uncertain, although there has been some enquiry into glucose transporter gene (i.e., factor) expression (i.e., facies).[1] Gene expression is the process (i.e., processus) by which a gene gets turned on in a cell to make Rna and proteins. Gene expression may be measured by looking at the RNA, or the protein made from the RNA, or what the protein does in a cell. Glucose is a type (i.e., typus, or variation) of saccharide; the chief source of energy for living organisms. Gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of Dna, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. Protein is a molecule made up of amino acids. Proteins are needed for the body (i.e., corpus) to function properly. They are the basis (i.e., base) of body structures, such as skin (i.e., cutis) and hair (i.e., pilus), and of
    other substances such as enzymes, cytokines, and antibodies.
  2. It’s possible to recognize, the poorly differentiated tumors expressed the 25-, 22-, and 18-k.[2]
  3. One can assume that, to confirm these results, we analyzed the expression of FIBP protein in nine poorly differentiated tumors (five).[2]

Furthermore, we can make the pursuing observations with respect to Cancer Special Studies :

  • It really is apparent that, in particular, from this current study, we know that cervical (i.e., cervicalis) tumors with a higher SUVmax are more likely to be poorly differentiated and have an increased risk of lymph (i.e., lympha) node (i.e., nodus) involvement.[1] Lymph is the clear fluid that travels through the lymphatic (i.e., vas lymphaticum) organisation and carries cells that help fight infections and other diseases. Likewise called lymphatic fluid. Cervical, relating to the neck (i.e., cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus), or collum) opening, or to the neck of any organ or structure. Cervical lymph node (i.e., nodus lymphoideus, or lymphonodus)s are located in the cervix. Cervical malignant neoplastic disease refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle), narrow end (the neck ) of the uterus (i.e., metra, or womb). Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Lymph node is a rounded masses of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue). Lymph nodes filter (i.e., filtrum) lymph (lymphatic fluid), and they stack away lymphocytes (white (i.e., albicans) blood cells). They are located along lymphatic vessels (i.e., lymph vessels). Also called lymph secretor.
  • It would appear apparant that, overall, the results of the current study offer valuable new information concerning cervical cancer and FDG-PET, in particular that SC (subsequent) (Sydenham chorea (i.e., acute chorea, or chorea minor) (SC)) and badly differentiated cervical tumors have higher FDG uptake.[1] Cervical cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the uterine cervix (the organ connecting the uterus and vagina (i.e., sheath)). It is usually a slow-growing cancer that may not have symptoms but can be found with regular Pap tests (a operation in which cells are scraped from the cervix and looked at under a microscope). Cervical cancer is well-nigh always caused by human papillomavirus (i.e., papilloma virus) (Hpv) infection.
  • One can recognize, to decide whether increased look of FGF1 compensates for the loss of FGF2 in poorly differentiated TRAMP tumors arising.[2]
  • It is clear that, cdna Microarray Expression Analysis in Poorly Differentiated Hobo Tumors is discussed here.[2]
  • Finally, one can determine that, da forms of FGF2 are found in this article.[2]

Terminology


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Da

Abbreviation for developmental age2; direct agglutination.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Cdna

Abbreviation for complementary DNA, sometimes used as copy DNA.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Cell

  1. The smallest unit of living structure capable of
    independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and
    containing a nucleus or nucleoid. Cells are highly variable and specialized in
    both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate
    proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves.
  2. A small closed or partly closed cavity; a compartment
    or hollow receptacle.
  3. A container of glass, ceramic, or other solid material
    within which chemical reactions generating electricity take place or solutions
    are placed for photometric assays.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Tubercle

  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic,
    sense.
  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the skin,
    mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the latter
    giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.
  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of
    a tooth.
  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm
    in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components,
    tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that
    usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1)
    an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous;
    2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large
    mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially
    (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence
    termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also
    be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes
    and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of
    fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable
    lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the
    term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians
    use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of
    undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


Sheath

  1. Any enveloping structure, such as the membranous
    covering of a muscle, nerve, or blood vessel. Any sheathlike structure.
  2. The prepuce of male animals, especially of the
    horse.
  3. A specially designed tubular instrument through which
    special obturators or cutting instruments can be passed, or through which
    blood clots, tissue fragments, and calculi can be evacuated.
  4. A tube used as an orthodontic appliance, usually on
    molars


Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Lymphatic

  1. Pertaining to lymph.
  2. A vascular channel that transports lymph.
  3. Sometimes used to pertain to a sluggish or phlegmatic
    characteristic


Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Pilus

A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous in function to the flagellum, which occurs on some bacteria. Although they can be chemically similar to flagella, pili consist only of protein and are shorter, straighter, and more numerous. Specialized pili (F pili, I pili, and other conjugative pili) seem to mediate bacterial conjugation and bacterial attachment to host cells during the infective process


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Vagina

The part of the genital canal in the female, extending between the cervix of the uterus and the vestibule; it is an organ of copulation that receives the penis during sexual intercourse


Lymph vessels

the vessels that convey the lymph; they anastomose freely with each other


Lymph node

One of numerous round, oval, or bean-shaped bodies located along the course of lymphatic vessels, varying greatly in size (1??????25 mm in diameter) and usually presenting a depressed area, the hilum, on one side through which blood vessels enter and efferent lymphatic vessels emerge. The structure consists of a fibrous capsule and internal trabeculae supporting lymphoid tissue and lymph sinuses; lymphoid tissue is arranged in nodules in the cortex and cords in the medulla of a node, with afferent vessels entering at many points of the periphery


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Sydenham chorea

a postinfectious chorea appearing several months after a streptococcal infection with subsequent rheumatic fever. The chorea typically involves the distal limbs and is associated with hypotonia and emotional lability. Improvement occurs over weeks or months and exacerbations occur without associated infection recurrence


Papillomavirus

A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing double-stranded circular DNA (MW 5 ???? 106), having virions about 55 nm in diameter, and including the papilloma and wart viruses of humans and other animals, some of which are associated with induction of carcinoma. More than 70 types are known to infect humans and are differentiated by DNA homology


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Secretor

An individual whose bodily fluids (saliva, semen, vaginal secretions) contain a water-soluble form of the antigens of the ABO blood group. Secretors constitute 80% of the population. In forensic medicine, the examination of fluids has enhanced the ability of law enforcement officials to develop identifying information about perpetrators and narrow a field of suspects.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Gene

A functional unit of heredity that occupies a specific place (locus) on a chromosome, is capable of reproducing itself exactly at each cell division, and directs the formation of an enzyme or other protein. The gene as a functional unit consists of a discrete segment of a giant DNA molecule containing the purine (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) bases in the correct sequence to code the sequence of amino acids of a specific peptide. Protein synthesis is mediated by molecules of messenger RNA formed on the chromosome with the gene acting as a template. The RNA then passes into the cytoplasm and becomes oriented on the ribosomes where it in turn acts as a template to organize a chain of amino acids to form a peptide. In organisms reproducing sexually, genes normally occur in pairs in all cells except gametes, as a consequence of the fact that all chromosomes are paired except the sex chromosomes (X and Y) of the male


Heredity

  1. The transmission of characters from parent to
    offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells.
  2. Genealogy.


Chorea

Irregular, spasmodic, involuntary movements of the limbs or facial muscles, often accompanied by hypotonia. The location of the responsible cerebral lesion is not known.


Sydenham

  1. Thomas, English physician, 1624??????1689.
  2. See Sydenham
    chorea, Sydenham disease


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Hpv

Abbreviation for human papillomavirus.


Fdg

Abbreviation for fluorodeoxyglucose.


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Cervical

Relating to a neck, or cervix, in any sense


Rna

  1. Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid; Registered Nurse
    Anesthetist.
  2. See For terms
    bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under ribonucleic acid


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Pap

  1. Acronym for peroxidase antiperoxidase complex.
    Abbreviation for 3-phosphoadenosine 5-phosphate.
  2. See PAP
    technique


Uterine

Relating to the uterus.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Saccharide

  1. Any substance that is either a simple sugar (aldose or
    ketose) or a compound of such substances in glycosidic linkage to each other.
    Saccharides are classified as mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides according
    to the number of monosaccharide groups composing them.
  2. See carbohydrates


Squamous

Relating to or covered with scales


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Vas

A duct or canal conveying any liquid, such as blood, lymph, chyle, or semen.


Molecule

The smallest possible quantity of a di-, tri-, or polyatomic substance that retains the chemical properties of the substance.


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Lymphatic tissue

a form of connective tissue consisting of a three-dimensional network of reticular fibers and cells the meshes of which are occupied in varying degrees of density with lymphocytes; there is nodular, diffuse, and loose lymphatic tissue.


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Cervical cancer histology and tumor differentiation affect 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake – Kidd – 2009 – Cancer – Wiley Online Library
  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Promotes Tumor Progression in an Autochthonous Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

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