Cancer Substantial Renal Toxicity

Cancer Substantial Renal Toxicity

Cancer Substantial Renal (i.e., nephric) Toxicity

With respect to renal we could identify toxicity, and acute failure as being crucial. Toxicity is the extent to which something is poisonous (i.e., toxic, or toxicant) or harmful. Acute, symptoms or signs that begin and decline quickly; not chronic.

Regarding renal toxicity we could identify the following common details, observations, and also entries:

  1. It’s possible to assume that, renal perniciousness related to malignant neoplastic disease (i.e., illness, or morbus) therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia) Renal toxicity of cancer chemotherapy.[1] Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Therapy, treatment. Chemotherapy, treatment with drugs that kill cancer
    cells.
  2. One can view (i.e., projection), renal perniciousness was limited to transient elevations in serum creatinine levels, except in some patients who had renal impairment prior to CPDD (Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD)) treatment.[2] Impairment is a loss of part or all of a physical or genial (i.e., mental) ability, such as the ability to see, walk, or learn. Serum is the clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins receive been removed. Creatinine is a compound that is excreted from the organic structure (i.e., structura) in urine. Creatinine levels are measured to monitor kidney (i.e., ren, or
    nephros) purpose.
  3. Evidently, these patients had moderate renal toxicity.[2]
  4. It’s possible to determine, several approaches feature been used to lessen cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in humans including.[3] Cisplatin is a drug used to treat many types of malignant neoplastic disease. Cisplatin contains the metal platinum. It kills malignant neoplastic disease cells by damaging their Dna and stopping them from dividing. Cisplatin is a type of alkylating agent.
  5. It seems to be, nephritic perniciousness was dose-limiting.[3]
  6. It looks that, gastrointestinal (gi) and renal toxicity were recorded and were categorized as mild, moderate, or severe as described previously here.[3] Gastrointestinal, refers to the abdomen (i.e., venter) and
    intestines. As well called GI.
  7. One can notice, unfortunately, renal perniciousness remains a concern even with more prolonged diuresis.[3]
  8. It’s been discovered that, strategies to prevent renal toxicity of cox inhibitor/cisplatin therapy are crucial.[3] COX inhibitor is a type of drug that is used to treat redness and hurting, and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors belong to the family of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Nsaids). As well called cox
    inhibitor.
  9. It would appear that, unfortunately, the renal toxicity of piroxicam/cisplatin was frequent and dose-limiting.[3]
  10. One can recognize, biochemotherapy, 6percent of the fifty three patients developed grade III and IV (intravenous) nephritic toxicity, and one patient had permanent renal failure (i.e., end-stage renal disease).[4] Renal failure is a condition in which the kidneys intercept working and are not able to remove waste and extra water (i.e., aromatic water) from the blood or keep body chemicals in balance. Acute or severe nephritic failure happens all of a sudden (for example, after an injury) and may be treated and cured. Chronic nephritic failure develops over many years, may be caused by conditions like high blood pressure or diabetes, and cannot be cured. Chronic nephritic failure may lead to total and long-lasting renal failure, called end-stage renal disease (Esrd). A person in ESRD needs dialysis (the process (i.e., processus) of cleaning (i.e., dental prophylaxis) the blood by passing it through
    a tissue layer (i.e., panniculus) or filter (i.e., filtrum)) or a kidney
    transplant. Likewise called kidney failure.
  11. You can conclude that, renal toxicity is not a class consequence of bisphosphonates.[5]

Regarding acute renal failure we are able to identify the following common details, observations, and also results:

  1. One can determine, this article reviews specific renal disease in cancer patients, providing a comprehensive overview of the causes of ARF in this mise en scene, such as treatment toxicity, acute renal failure in the setting of myeloma or bone marrow transplantation.[1] Bone marrow transplantation is a process to replace bone marrow that has been destroyed by handling with high doses of anticancer drugs or radiation (i.e., radiatio). Transplantation may be autologous (i.e., autogenous) (an person’s own marrow saved before treatment), allogeneic (marrow donated by someone else), or syngeneic (i.e., isogeneic, or isogenic) (marrow donated by an identical twin). Bone marrow is the soft, parazoan-like tissue in the centre of most bones. It produces white (i.e., albicans) blood cells, loss blood cells, and platelets. Transplantation is a surgical procedure in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one area of a individual’s body to another area, or from one individual (the donor) to another person (the recipient). Myeloma, cancer that arises in plasm (i.e., plasma)
    cells, a type of white blood cell.
  2. One can view, acute renal failure (ARF) is a sober complication of malignancies that causes substantial morbidity (i.e., morbility) and fatality rate.[1] Morbidity is a disease or the relative incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to adverse effects caused by a handling. Complication is in medicine, a medical (i.e., medicinal, or medicinal) problem that occurs
    during a disease, or after a operation or handling. The complication may be
    caused by the disease, process, or treatment or may be unrelated to them.
  3. It would seem apparant that, over the last decade, there is accumulating evidence for a role of reactive oxygen metabolites in the pathogenesis of a variety of renal diseases, including gentamicin, glycerol (i.e., 1, or 2), cisplatin, and cyclosporine A models of toxic acute renal failure.[2] Oxygen is a colorless, inodorous gas. It is needed for animal and plant living. Oxygen that is breathed in enters the blood from the lungs and travels to the tissues. Cyclosporine is a drug used to help
    reduce the risk of exposure of rejection of organ and ivory marrow transplants
    by the body. It is also used in clinical trials to make malignant neoplastic
    disease cells more sensitive (i.e., sensible) to anticancer drugs.

The following researched findings can be made for Cancer Substantial Renal Toxicity :

  • As an example, thus (i.e., olibanum) Gmelina arborea extracts may have ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol (i.e., acetaminophen) and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent perniciousness may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment.[2] Hepatic, refers to the liver
    (i.e., hepar).

Terminology


Gastrointestinal (gi)

Relating to the stomach and intestines


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Bisphosphonates

Synthetic pyrophosphate analogues that inhibit osteoclast resorption of bone.


Toxicity

The state of being poisonous.


Transplantation

Implanting in one part a tissue or organ taken from another part or from another person.


Glycerol

A sweet viscous fluid obtained by the saponification of fats and fixed oils; used as a solvent, as a skin emollient, by injection or in the form of suppository for constipation, and as a vehicle and sweetening agent


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Dialysis

  1. A form of filtration to separate crystalloid from
    colloid substances (or smaller molecules from larger ones) in a solution by
    interposing a semipermeable membrane between the solution and dialyzing fluid;
    the crystalloid (smaller) substances pass through the membrane into the
    dialyzing fluid on the other side, the colloids do not.
  2. The separation of substances across a semipermeable
    membrane on the basis of particle size or concentration gradients.
  3. A method of artificial kidney function.


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Scene

Continuous action in one place; exhibition of questionable behavior.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Animal

  1. A living, sentient organism that has membranous cell
    walls, requires oxygen and organic foods, and is capable of voluntary
    movement, as distinguished from a plant or mineral.
  2. One of the lower animal organisms as distinguished
    from humans.


Alkylating agent

a drug or chemical that, through the formation of covalent bonds, forms a derivatized tissue constituent permanently containing part of the drug or chemical compound; frequently carcinogenic and mutagenic, but often used in the chemotherapy of cancer (nitrogen mustards and carmustine).


Renal failure

loss of renal function, either acute or chronic, that results in azotemia and syndrome of uremia


Autologous

  1. Occurring naturally and normally in a certain type of
    tissue or in a specific structure of the body.
  2. In transplantation, referring to transfer of an organ
    or other tissue from one location to another in the same person; or to blood
    or blood components that the donor has previously donated and receives at a
    later time, usually perioperatively.
  3. Rarely used to denote a neoplasm derived from cells
    that occur normally at that sight, a squamous cell carcinoma in the upper
    esophagus


Fatality

  1. A condition, disease, or disaster ending in death.
  2. An individual instance of death.


Toxicant

Any poisonous agent, specifically an alcohol or other poison, causing symptoms of what is popularly called intoxication


Diabetes

Either diabetes insipidus or diabetes mellitus, diseases having in common the triad of symptoms polyuria, weight loss, and significant glucosuria; when used without qualification, refers to diabetes mellitus.


Inflammatory

Pertaining to, characterized by, causing, resulting from, or becoming affected by inflammation.


Pathogenesis

The pathologic, physiologic, or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease or morbid process.


Morbidity

  1. A diseased state.
  2. The ratio of sick well people in a community.
  3. The frequency of the appearance of complications
    following a surgical procedure or other treatment


Walk

  1. To move on foot.
  2. The characteristic manner in which one moves on
    foot.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Diuresis

Excretion of urine; commonly denotes production of unusually large volumes of urine.


Prophylaxis

Prevention of disease or of a process that can lead to disease.


Chemotherapy

Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease.


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Dental

Relating to the teeth.


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Nsaids

Abbreviation for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, under drug; aspirin, ibuprofen.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Gentamicin

A broad spectrum antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class, obtained from Micromonospora purpurea and M. echinospora, which inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; the sulfate salt is used medicinally.


Inherent

Occurring as a natural part or consequence; latent imminent; intrinsic.


Transient

  1. Short-lived; passing; not permanent; said of a
    disease or an attack.
  2. A short-lived cardiac sound having little duration
    (less than 0.12 seconds) as distinct from a murmur; first, second, third, and
    fourth heart sounds, clicks, and opening snaps.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Renal insufficiency

defective function of the kidneys, with accumulation of waste products (particularly nitrogenous) in the blood.


Esrd

Abbreviation for end-stage renal disease.


Serum

  1. A clear, watery fluid, especially that moistening the
    surface of serous membranes, or exuded in inflammation of any of those
    membranes.
  2. The fluid portion of the blood obtained after removal
    of the fibrin clot and blood cells, distinguished from the plasma in
    circulating blood. Sometimes used as a synonym for antiserum or antitoxin.


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Autogenous

Originating within the body, applied to vaccines prepared from bacteria or other materials (cells) obtained from the affected person


Heat treatment

in dentistry, a method of controlled temperature handling of metals so as to change the microscopic structure and thus the physical properties.


Chronic

  1. Referring to a health-related state, lasting a long
    time.
  2. Referring to exposure, prolonged or long-term,
    sometimes meaning also low intensity.
  3. The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics
    defines a chronic condition as one persisting 3 months or longer.


Donor

  1. A person from whom blood, tissue, or an organ is
    taken for transplantation.
  2. A compound that will transfer an atom or a radical to
    an acceptor; methionine is a methyl donor; glutathione is a glutamyl donor.
  3. An atom that readily yields electrons to an acceptor,
    nitrogen, which will donate both electrons to a shared pool in forming a
    coordinate bond.


Grade

  1. A rank, division, or level on the scale of a value
    system.
  2. In cancer pathology, a classification of the degree
    of malignancy or differentiation of tumor tissue; well, moderately well, or
    poorly differentiated, and undifferentiated or anaplastic.
  3. In exercise testing, the measurement of a vertical
    rise or fall as a percentage of the horizontal distance traveled.


Medicinal

Relating to medicine having curative properties


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Balance

  1. An apparatus for weighing (scales).
  2. The normal state of action and reaction between two
    or more parts or organs of the body.
  3. Quantities, concentrations, and proportionate amounts
    of bodily constituents.
  4. The difference between intake and use, storage, or
    excretion of a substance by the body.
  5. The act of maintaining an upright posture in standing
    or locomotion.
  6. The system that depends on vestibular function,
    vision, and proprioception to maintain posture, navigate in one’s
    surroundings, coordinate motion of body parts, modulate fine motor control,
    and initiate the vestibulooculomotor reflexes.


Anti-

  1. Combining form meaning against, opposing, or, in
    relation to symptoms and diseases, curative.
  2. Prefix denoting an antibody (immunoglobulin) specific
    for the thing indicated; antitoxin (antibody specific for a toxin).


Nephritic

Relating to or suffering from nephritis.


Setting

Hardening, as of amalgam.


Urine

The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.


Hepatic

Relating to the liver.


Olibanum

A gum resin from several trees of the genus Boswellia (family Burseraceae); used as a stimulant expectorant in bronchitis, for fumigations, and as incense


Liver

The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastric region; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1??????2 kg, or about one fortieth the weight of the body. As an exocrine gland, it secretes bile; it initially receives most absorbed nutrients through the portal vein; it detoxifies drugs and many exogeneous substances and is also of great importance in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; also stores glycogen


Twin

  1. One of two children or animals born at one birth.
  2. Double; growing in pairs. May be monozygotic or
    dizygotic.


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Dose

  1. The quantity of a drug or other remedy to be taken or
    applied all at one time or in fractional amounts within a given period.
  2. nuclear medicine amount of energy absorbed per unit
    mass of irradiated material (absorbed dose).


Radiation

radiophobia.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Cyclosporine

A cyclic oligopeptide immunosuppressant produced by the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum Gams; used to inhibit organ transplant rejection.


Cox

Acronym for cyclooxygenase.


Recipient

One who receives, as in blood transfusion or tissue or organ transplant.


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Medical

Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine


Surgical

Relating to surgery.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Insufficiency

Lack of completeness of function or power.


Syngeneic

Relating to genetically identical individuals


Kidney

One of the paired organs that excrete urine, remove nitrogenous wastes of metabolism, reclaim important electrolytes and water, contribute to blood pressure control(renin-angiotensin system) and erythropoiesis (via erythropoietin production). The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about 11-cm long, 5-cm wide, and 3-cm thick, lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, opposite the 12th thoracic and 1st??????3rd lumbar vertebrae. In animals, the kidney has variable size and location


Nephric

Relating to the kidney


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Clinical review: Specific aspects of acute renal failure in cancer patients
  2. Cisplatin :: toxicity
  3. Effects of the Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Piroxicam, in Combination with Chemotherapy on Tumor Response, Apoptosis, and Angiogenesis in a Canine Model of Human Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer1
  4. Practical Guidelines for the Management of Biochemotherapy-related Toxicity in Melanoma
  5. just-medical! Renal safety, renal impairment, cancer patients, bisphosphonates, nephrotoxicity, dose adjustment, renal function monitoring, IRMA (Insuffisance R �nale et M �dicaments Anticanc �reux), zoledronic acid, ibandronate

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