Cancer Personalized Medicine

Cancer Personalized Medicine

Cancer Personalized Medicine

The value of the particular enclosed seven personalized medicine conclusions, really mustn’t be discounted:

  1. It would appear apparant that, we want to reward (i.e., reinforcer) those who are pushing the boundaries of what can be done with Dna or Rna while contributing to the scientific idea line (i.e., linea) for cancer, personalized medicine or infectious (i.e., infective) disease (i.e., illness, or morbus) research.[1] Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Medicine, refers to the practices and procedures used for the prevention, treatment, or relief of symptoms of a diseases or abnormal conditions. This term may also refer to a legal drug used for the same purpose. Personalized medicine is a shape of medicine that uses information about a person’s genes, proteins, and environment to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease. Likewise called precision medicine. RNA, one of two types of nucleic acid made by cells. RNA contains selective information that has been copied from DNA (the other type of nucleic acid). Cells create several different forms of RNA, and each form has a specific job in the cell. Many forms of RNA make functions related to making proteins. RNA is also the genetic fabric of some
    viruses instead of DNA. RNA can be made in the science laboratory and used in
    research studies. As well called ribonucleic acid.
  2. It seems that, DNA Genotek Launches Grant Programme Aimed at Cancer, Personalized Medicine and Infectious disease Research | Cambridge UK Tourist Guide, more details here.[1]
  3. It might seem apparant that, targeted handling of Her2-confirming breast (i.e., mamma, or teat) cancer with the anti-Her2 antibody trastuzumab has become an example of successful personalized medicine.[2] Trastuzumab is a drug used to treat breast malignant neoplastic disease that is HER2-positive (expresses the human epidermal (i.e., epidermic) growth factor (i.e., gene) receptor 2). It is also used with other drugs to treat HER2-confirming stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus) cancer that has not already been treated and has spread to other parts of the body. It is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Trastuzumab binds to HER2 on the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of HER2-positive malignant neoplastic disease cells, and may stamp out them. It is a type of monoclonal antibody. Likewise called Herceptin (i.e., transluzumab). Antibody is a protein made by plasma (i.e., blood plasma) cells (a type of white (i.e., albicans) blood cell) in response to an antigen (a substance (i.e., substantia, or matter) that causes the body to make a specific immune response). Each antibody can bind to only one specific antigen. The purpose of this binding is to help destroy the antigen. Some antibodies destroy antigens directly. Others make it easier for white blood cells to destroy the antigen. An antibody is a type of immunoglobulin. Breast cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk (i.e., strip, or lac) to the nipple (i.e., papilla mammae, or mammilla)) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male (i.e., masculine) breast (i.e., mamma masculina, or mamma virilis) cancer is rare. Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk. Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland).
  4. One can determine that, Cancer Clinical Trials and Personalized Medicine was the second in the AACR Translational Cancer Medicine Series and the first to be held in the United States.  Details are found at this site.[3]
  5. It’s possible to determine, Breast Cancer Gene Aspect (i.e., norma) Profiling Has Not Achieved Personalized Medicine Thus (i.e., olibanum)
    far.  This item is discussed in this article.[4]
  6. One can believe that, breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer, personalized medicine, genetics of cancer Cancer Matters.[5] Gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. Genetics is the study of genes and heredity. Heredity is the passing of genetic information and traits (such as eye (i.e.,
    oculus) color and an increased chance of getting a certain disease) from
    parents to offspring.
  7. It’s apparent that, our approach to malignant neoplastic disease Personalized Medicine is of importance and presented here.[6]

Terminology


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15 24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Mammilla

A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Nucleic acid

A family of macromolecules, of molecular masses ranging upward from 25,000, found in the chromosomes, nucleoli, mitochondria, and cytoplasm of all cells, and in viruses; in complexes with proteins, they are called nucleoproteins. On hydrolysis they yield purines, pyrimidines, phosphoric acid, and a pentose, either d-ribose or d-deoxyribose; from the last, the nucleic acids derive their more specific names, ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are linear (unbranched) chains of nucleotides in which the 5??????-phosphoric group of each one is esterified with the 3??????-hydroxyl of the adjoining nucleotide.


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Receptor

  1. A structural protein molecule on the cell surface or
    within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor, such as a drug, hormone,
    antigen, or neurotransmitter.
  2. Any one of the various sensory nerve endings in the
    skin, deep tissues, viscera, and special sense organs.


Boundaries

In psychiatry and psychology, various guidelines that define the role of the mental health professional and the setting and scope of the therapeutic interaction to provide a sage therapeutic environment clearly differentiated from that of a social environment. This will facilitate optimal therapeutic benefit to the patient and limit any personal gratification to the therapist save that derived from the therapeutic work itself.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Genetics

  1. The branch of science concerned with the means and
    consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biologic
    inheritance.
  2. The genetic features and constitution of any single
    organism or set of organisms.


Monoclonal

In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.


Herceptin

A monoclonal antibody used in treating her 2 neu??????positive carcinoma of breast


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Immune response

  1. any response of the immune system to an antigen
    including antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity;
  2. the response of the immune system to an antigen
    (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune
    response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is
    detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to 2
    weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune
    response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary
    immune response.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Infective

Capable of transmitting an infection


Reinforcer

In conditioning, a pleasant or satisfaction-yielding (positive reinforcer) or painful or unsatisfying (negative reinforcer), stimulus, object, or stimulus event that is obtained on the performance of a desired or predetermined operant


Papilla

Any small, nipplelike process


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Infectious disease

a disease resulting from the presence and activity of a microbial agent.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Epidermal

Relating to the epidermis


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Precision

  1. The quality of being sharply defined or stated; one
    measure of precision is the number of distinguishable alternatives to a
    measurement.
  2. In statistics, the inverse of the variance of a
    measurement or estimate.
  3. Reproducibility of a quantifiable result; an
    indication of the random error.


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Heredity

  1. The transmission of characters from parent to
    offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells.
  2. Genealogy.


Olibanum

A gum resin from several trees of the genus Boswellia (family Burseraceae); used as a stimulant expectorant in bronchitis, for fumigations, and as incense


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Eye

  1. The organ of vision that consists of the eyeball and
    the optic nerve;
  2. The area of the eye, including lids and other
    accessory organs of the eye; the contents of the orbit (common)


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Rna

  1. Abbreviation for ribonucleic acid; Registered Nurse
    Anesthetist.
  2. See For terms
    bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under ribonucleic acid


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any
    structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Genetic

Pertaining to genetics; genetical.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Lac

Any whitish, milklike liquid


Infectious

  1. A disease capable of being transmitted from person to
    person, with or without actual contact.
  2. Denoting a disease due to the action of a
    microorganism


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. DNA Genotek Launches Grant Program Aimed at Cancer, Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Research | Cambridge UK Tourist Guide
  2. Solid Tumor Cancer Personalized Medicine Therapies Form New Treatment Approach. | BioPortfolio.com
  3. Cancer Clinical Trials and Personalized Medicine
  4. Personalized Cancer Medicine – Cancer Forums and News by PhD`s
  5. breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer, personalized medicine, genetics of cancer Cancer Matters
  6. Personalized Treatments | Cancer Specialist, Cancer Drug Clinical Trials | Houston, Texas

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