Cancer Alter Person Risk

Cancer Alter Person Risk

Cancer Alter Person Risk

There shouldn’t be question regarding the particular relevancy associated with risk on factor (i.e., gene), and common factors. The particular impact associated with factor in risk, environmental, and common risk is definitely substantial. It can be pointed out that cancer is actually in a big way influenced by develop, vaginal, and causing. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Vaginal, having to come with the vagina (the giving birth canal (i.e., canalis) (i.e., parturient canal)).

You can find a minimum of four items strongly related risk factor. Risk factor, something that increases the chance of developing a disease. Some examples of risk factors for cancer are age, a family history of certain cancers, use of tobacco products, being exposed to radiation (i.e., radiatio) or certain chemicals, infection with certain viruses or bacteria, and certain genetic changes. They may be listed below:

  1. You can notice, smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung (i.e., pulmo) and many other cancers.[2] Lung, one of a pair of organs in the chest (i.e., pectus) that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from
    the body.
  2. It would appear that, even if a woman with vaginal malignant neoplastic disease has one or more risk factors, it is impossible to know for sure how much that risk factor contributed to causing the cancer.[2]
  3. It would seem apparant that, about the most common risk of infection factors for malignant neoplastic disease.[3] Infection, invasion and multiplication of germs in the body. Infections can occur in any part of the body and can spread throughout the body. The germs may be bacteria, viruses, yeast, or fungi. They can cause a fever (i.e., febris, or
    pyrexia) and other problems, depending on where the infection occurs. When the
    body’s natural defense system is strong, it can often fight the germs and
    prevent infection. Some cancer treatments can weaken the natural defense
    system.
  4. It’s possible to assume that, these are the most common jeopardy factors.[3]

You can find no less than three items strongly related develop cancer. They may be listed below:

  1. Seemingly, however, a constant fear of developing cancer can generate stress that may dampen the immune scheme (i.e., schema) and contribute to the development of disease, including cancer.[1] Stress is the
    reaction of the organic structure (i.e., structura) to physical, mental, or
    emotional pressure. This may make a person feel frustrated, angry, or anxious,
    and may cause unhealthy chemical changes in the organic structure. Untreated,
    long-term stress may lead to many types of genial (i.e., mental) and physical
    health problems.
  2. One can identify, a cancer susceptibility gene does not cause cancer directly; however, it makes a person carrying such a gene more vulnerable to environmental factors that contribute to the risk of developing cancer.[1]
  3. As an example, factors ne’er develop malignant neoplastic disease.[3]

Cancer Alter Person Risk relevant findings contain, but are not limited by:

  • It would seem to be apparant that, increased cancer risk is associated with infection by hepatitis B (i.e., viral hepatitis type b) virus (liver (i.e., hepar) cancer), papillomavirus (i.e., papilloma virus) (genital cancer), human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus (leukemia and lymphoma), and Epstein-Barr virus (cancer of the nose (i.e., nasus) or pharynx.[1] Lymphoma, cancer that begins in cells of the immune system. There are two basic categories of lymphomas. One kind is Hodgkin lymphoma (i.e., hodgkin disease), which is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell (i.e., reed cell, or sternberg cell) (i.e., reed-sternberg cell). The other category is non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large, diverse group of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be further divided into cancers that have an indolent (slow-growing) course and those that have an aggressive (fast-growing) course. These subtypes behave and respond to treatment differently. Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in children and adults, and prognosis and treatment depend on the stage and the type of cancer. Hepatitis, disease of the liver causing rubor. Symptoms include an enlarged liver, fever, nausea (i.e., sicchasia), vomiting (i.e., emesis, or vomition), abdominal painful sensation, and dark urine. Liver is a large organ located in the upper abdomen (i.e., venter). The liver cleanses the blood and aids (i.e., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in digestion by secreting bile (i.e., gall). Hepatitis B virus (i.e., cercopithecrine herpesvirus) is a virus that causes hepatitis (redness of the liver). It is carried and passed to others through the blood and other organic structure fluids. Dissimilar ways the virus is spread include sharing needles with an infected person and being stuck by chance by a needle contaminated with the virus. Infants born to infected mothers may as well become infected with the virus. Although many patients who are infected with hepatitis B virus may not have symptoms, long-term infection may lead to cirrhosis of the liver (scarring of the liver) and liver cancer. Likewise called Hbv. Pharynx is the hollow tube (i.e., tuba) inside the neck (i.e., cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus), or collum) that starts behind the nose and ends at the top of the trachea (i.e., windpipe) (windpipe (i.e., trachea)) and esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus)). The pharynx is about five inches long, depending on body size. As well called throat (i.e., gullet). Cell is the individual unit that makes up the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells. Genital, refers to the genitalia (i.e., organa genitalia, or genital organs) (external (i.e., externus) and internal sexual practice organs and glands). Leukemia, cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and enter the bloodstream. Epstein-Barr virus is a common virus that remains inactive in most people. It causes infectious (i.e., infective) kissing disease and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal (i.e., rhinopharyngeal) carcinoma. As well called Ebv. Liver cancer, primary liver cancer is cancer that forms in the tissues of the liver. Secondary liver cancer is cancer that spreads to the liver from another part of the body. Virus is in medicine, a very simple micro-organism
    that infects cells and may cause disease. Because viruses can multiply
    entirely inside infected cells, they are not considered to be alive.
  • It has been discovered that, long-condition exposure to the heavy metals beryllium and cadmium increases workers` risk of prostate (i.e., prostata, or glandula prostatica) gland cancer.[1] Cadmium is a metallic factor that occurs by nature in tiny amounts in air, water (i.e., aromatic water), soil, and food. It is a spin-off of zinc refining, and is used to make batteries, pigments, plastics, alloys, and electroplate. It is likewise found in cigarette smoke. Vulnerability to high levels of cadmium may cause certain cancers and other health problems. Prostate is a gland in the male (i.e., masculine) reproductive system (i.e., genital system). The prostate surrounds the part of the urethra (the tube that empties the bladder) just below the bladder, and produces a fluid that forms part of the semen (i.e., seed, or seminal fluid).
  • You can notice, if a person inherits an abnormal form of any one of three genes, armored personnel carrier, Msh2, or MLH1, the risk of colon malignant neoplastic disease is increased.[1] Abnormal, not normal. Describes a state, condition, or behavior that is unusual or different from what is considered normal. An abnormal lesion or growth in or on the body may be benign (not cancer), precancerous (i.e., premalignant) or premalignant (i.e., precancerous) (likely to become cancer), or malignant (cancer). APC is a type of immune cell that boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its airfoil to other cells of the immune organisation. An APC is a type of scavenger cell (i.e., phagocyte). Likewise called antigen-presenting cell. Colon is the longest part of the large intestine (i.e., bowel, or gut) (i.e., intestinum crassum), which is a tube-like organ connected to the small intestine (i.e., intestinum tenue) at one end and the anus (i.e., anal orifice) at the other. The colon removes water and some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food. The remaining material, solid waste called stool (i.e., evacuation), moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the body
    through the anus.
  • It looks that, a chemical carcinogen is an environmental chemical that can interact with cells to initiate cancer, usually by chemically altering the chromosomes or genes in cells.[1] Carcinogen, any subject matter (i.e., substance (i.e., substantia, or matter)) that causes malignant neoplastic disease. Chemical is a
    substance made up of elements, such as hydrogen or sodium.
  • It’s that, many epidemiological studies show that as many as 80% to 90% of cancers are caused by exposure to environmental factors that are known to increase the risk of cancer.[1]
  • As an example, children are especially at risk from radioactive (i.e., radio-) iodine, which causes thyroidal cancer; in the Ukraine, thyroid cancer among children is currently ten times higher than it was before the accident occurred.[1] Radioactive, giving off radioactivity. Thyroid is a gland located beneath the larynx (voice (i.e., vox) box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin (i.e., thyrocalcitonin). The thyroid helps regulate growth and metabolism. Also called thyroid gland (i.e., glandula thyroidea, or thyroid body). Thyroid cancer, cancer that forms in the thyroid gland (an organ at the base (i.e., basis, or basement) of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart (i.e., cor, or coeur) rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillary, follicular, medullary (i.e., medullar), and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the cancer cells look under a microscope. Iodine is an element that is necessary for the body to make thyroid endocrine. It is found in shellfish and iodized salt (i.e., table salt). Radioactive iodine is a radioactive form of iodin, oftentimes used for imaging tests or to treat an overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer, and certain other cancers. For imaging tests, the patient takes a little dose of radioactive iodine that collects in thyroid cells and certain kinds of tumors and can be detected by a scanner. To treat thyroid malignant neoplastic disease, the patient takes a large dose of radioactive iodine, which kills thyroid cells. Radioactive iodine is also used in internal radiation therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia) for prostate malignant neoplastic disease, intraocular (eye (i.e., oculus)) melanoma (i.e., malignant melanoma), and carcinoid tumors. Therapy, treatment. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill malignant neoplastic disease cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the organic structure (external-beam radioactivity therapy), or it may come from radioactive material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive essence, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the body. Likewise called irradiation and radiotherapy (i.e., radiation oncology). Radioactive iodine is given by mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium) as a liquid or in capsules, by extract, or sealed in seeds, which are placed in
    or near the tumor to kill cancer cells.
  • Finally, it appears to be that, some studies indicate that treating cervical (i.e., cervicalis) malignant neoplastic disease with radiation therapy may increase the risk of vaginal cancer, but this was not seen in other studies, and the issue remains unresolved.[2] Cervical, relating to the neck, or to the neck of any organ or structure. Cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck. Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle), narrow end (the neck ) of the uterus (i.e., metra, or womb). Vaginal cancer, cancer that forms in the tissues of the vagina (giving birth canal). The vagina leads from the cervix (the opening of the uterus) to the outside of the organic structure. The most common type of vaginal malignant neoplastic disease is squamous (i.e., scaly) cell carcinoma, which starts in the thin, flat cells lining the vagina. Another type of vaginal malignant neoplastic disease is adenocarcinoma (i.e., glandular (i.e., glandulous) cancer, or glandular carcinoma), cancer that begins in glandular cells in the lining of the vagina. Radiation, energy released in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves. Common sources of radiation include radon gas, cosmic rays from outer space (i.e., spatium), medical (i.e., medicinal, or medicinal) x-rays, and energy given off by a radioisotope (unstable form of a chemical
    element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable).

It could be mentioned that with regard to Cancer Alter Person Risk, risk factor is actually worth focusing on.

Terminology


Metabolism

  1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes
    occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert
    small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert
    large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well
    as biodegradation of xenobiotics.
  2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either
    anabolism or catabolism.


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Papillary

Relating to, resembling, or provided with papillae.


Bloodstream

The flowing blood as it is encountered in the circulatory system, as distinguished from blood that has been removed from the circulatory system or sequestered in a part; thus, something added to the bloodstream may be expected to become distributed to all parts of the body through which blood is flowing.


Extract

  1. A concentrated preparation of a drug obtained by
    removing the active constituents of the drug with suitable solvents,
    evaporating all or nearly all of the solvent, and adjusting the residual mass
    or powder to the prescribed standard.
  2. To remove part of a mixture with a solvent.
  3. To perform extraction.


Bladder

  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.
  2. See detrusor


Intraocular

Within the eyeball.


Susceptibility

  1. Likelihood of an individual to develop ill effects
    from an external agent, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, high altitude, or
    ambient temperature.
  2. In magnetic resonance imaging, the loss of
    magnetization signal caused by rapid phase dispersion because of marked local
    inhomogeneity of the magnetic field, as with the multiple air??????soft tissue
    interfaces in the lung.


Burkitt

  1. Denis P., British physician in Uganda,
    1911??????1993.
  2. See Burkitt
    lymphoma


Large intestine

the distal (aboral) portion of the digestive tube extending from the ileocecal valve to the anus; it comprises the cecum (with appendix), colon, rectum, and anal canal; shorter in length but larger in caliber than the small intestine, the large intestine functions to absorb fluids and electrolytes and provide temporary storage


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Scanner

A device or instrument that scans.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Calcitonin

A peptide hormone, of which eight forms in five species are known; composed of 32 amino acids and produced by the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymus glands; its action is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone in that calcitonin increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers the level of calcium in the blood; its level in the blood is increased by glucagon and by Ca2+ and thus opposes postprandial hypercalcemia


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Reproductive

Relating to reproduction.


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Prostate

A chestnut-shaped body, surrounding the beginning of the urethra in the male, which consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts. Structurally, the prostate consists of 30??????50 compound tubuloalveolar glands among which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles. The secretion of the glands is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen


Viral

Of, pertaining to, or caused by a virus.


Gaster

Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


Colon

The large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.


Carrier

  1. A person who or animal that harbors a specific
    infectious agent in the absence of discernible clinical disease and serves as
    a potential source of infection.
  2. Any chemical capable of accepting an atom, radical,
    or subatomic particle from one compound, then passing it to another;
    cytochromes are electron carriers; homocysteine is a methyl carrier.
  3. A substance that, by having chemical properties
    closely related to or indistinguishable from those of a radioactive tracer, is
    thus able to carry the tracer through a precipitation or similar chemical
    procedure; the best carriers are the nonradioactive isotopes of the tracer in
    question.
  4. A large immunogen (usually a protein) that, when
    coupled to a hapten, facilitates an immune response to the hapten.
  5. A component of a membrane that causes the transfer of
    a substance from one side of the membrane to the other.
  6. The mobile phase in chromatography.
  7. A component of a biologic fluid that binds a ligand
    and transports that ligand to a ne wlocation.


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Immunoblastic lymphoma

obsolete term for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.


Tubercle

  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic,
    sense.
  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the
    skin, mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the
    latter giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.
  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of
    a tooth.
  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm
    in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components,
    tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that
    usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1)
    an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous;
    2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large
    mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially
    (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence
    termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also
    be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes
    and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of
    fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable
    lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the
    term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians
    use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of
    undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


Larynx

The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles that control the position and tension of these elements.


Genital

  1. Relating to reproduction or generation.
  2. Relating to the primary female or male sex organs or
    genitals.
  3. Relating to or characterized by genitality.


Reed

  1. Dorothy M., U.S. pathologist, 1874??????1964.
  2. See Reed cell,
    Reed-Sternberg cell, Sternberg-Reed cell


Nasopharyngeal

Relating to the nasopharynx


Rubor

Redness, as one of the four signs of inflammation (r., calor, dolor, tumor) enunciated by Celsus.


Hodgkin disease

a disease marked by chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes, often local at the onset and later generalized, together with enlargement of the spleen and often of the liver, no pronounced leukocytosis, and commonly anemia and continuous or remittent (Pel-Ebstein) fever; considered to be a malignant neoplasm of lymphoid cells of uncertain origin (Reed-Sternberg cells), associated with inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophilic leukocytes and fibrosis; can be classified into lymphocytic predominant, nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, and lymphocytic depletion types; a similar disease occurs in domestic cats


Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


Classification

A systematic arrangement into classes or groups based on perceived common characteristics; a means of giving order to a group of disconnected facts.


Throat

  1. The fauces and pharynx.
  2. The anterior aspect of the neck.
  3. Any narrowed entrance into a hollow part


Ostium

A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


Precancerous

Pertaining to any lesion that is interpreted as precancer


Fungi

A kingdom of eukaryotic organisms that grow in irregular masses, without roots, stems, or leaves, and are devoid of chlorophyll or other pigments capable of photosynthesis. Each organism (thallus) is unicellular to filamentous, and possesses branched somatic structures (hyphae) surrounded by cell walls containing glucan or chitin or both, and containing true nuclei. They reproduce sexually or asexually (spore formation), and may obtain nutrition from other living organisms as parasites or from dead organic matter as saprobes (saprophytes).


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Born

  1. Gustav Jacob, German embryologist, 1851??????1900.
  2. See Born method
    of wax plate reconstruction


Nausea

An inclination to vomit


Radioisotope

An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation.


Systemic

Relating to a system; specifically somatic, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.


Monoclonal

In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.


Uterus

The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


Bile

Yellowish-brown or green fluid secreted by the liver and discharged into the duodenum, where it aids in the emulsification of fats, increases peristalsis, and retards putrefaction; contains sodium glycocholate and sodium taurocholate, cholesterol, biliverdin, bilirubin, mucus, fat, lecithin, and cells and cellular debris


Cavity

  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
    caries


Hodgkin

  1. Thomas, British physician, 1798??????1866.
  2. See Hodgkin
    disease, Hodgkin-Key murmur, non-Hodgkin lymphoma


Reed-sternberg cell

large transformed lymphocytes, probably B cell in origin, generally regarded as pathognomonic of Hodgkin disease; a typical cell has a pale-staining acidophilic cytoplasm and one or two large nuclei showing marginal clumping of chromatin and unusually conspicuous deeply acidophilic nucleoli; binucleate Reed-Sternberg cell frequently shows a mirror-image form (mirror-image cell)


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Barr

  1. Murray L., Canadian microanatomist,
    1908??????1995.
  2. See Barr
    chromatin body


Phagocyte

A cell that can ingest bacteria, foreign particles, and other cells. Phagocytes ingest and kill microbes, present antigen to lymphocytes, scavenge degenerating material, and release mediators. classes 1) microphages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes that ingest chiefly bacteria; 2) macrophages, mononucleated cells (histiocytes and monocytes) that are largely scavengers, ingesting dead tissue and degenerated cells


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Seminal

  1. Relating to semen.
  2. Original or influential of future developments.


Carcinogen

Any cancer-producing substance or organism, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or agents such as in certain types of irradiation.


Soil

Dirt.


Infection

Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease.


Syndrome

The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Rectum

The terminal portion of the digestive tube, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anal canal (perineal flexure).


Gamma rays

electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive substances; they are high-energy x-rays but originate from the nucleus rather than the orbital shell and are not deflected by a magnet.


Cercopithecrine herpesvirus

an herpesvirus, in the family Herpesviridae, affecting Old World monkeys, which is very similar morphologically to herpes simplex virus; fatal infection may occur in humans following the bite of an infected monkey, although other modes of transmission have also been documented


Bacteria

Plural of bacterium.


Infective

Capable of transmitting an infection


Anaplastic

  1. Relating to anaplasty.
  2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia.
  3. Growing without form or structure.


Trachea

The air tube extending from the larynx into the thorax to the level of the fifth or sixth thoracic vertebra where it bifurcates into the right and left bronchi. The trachea is composed of 16??????20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage connected by a membrane (anular ligament); posteriorly, the rings are deficient for one fifth to one third of their circumference, the interval forming the membranous wall being closed by a fibrous membrane containing smooth muscular fibers. Internally, the mucosa is composed of a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with mucous goblet cells; numerous small mixed mucous and serous glands occur, the ducts of which open to the surface of the epithelium


Neck

  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.
  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


Cervix

Any necklike structure


Oncology

The study or science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of neoplasms, including causation, pathogenesis, and treatment.


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Lesion

  1. A wound or injury.
  2. A pathologic change in the tissues.
  3. One of the individual points or patches of a
    multifocal disease.


Hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver, due usually to viral infection but sometimes to toxic agents.


Radioactivity

The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (???? and ???? rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in disintegrations per second (dps). One dps is equal to 1 becquerel, and 3.7 ???? 1010 dps equals 1 curie.


Salt

  1. A compound formed by the interaction of an acid and a
    base, the ionizable hydrogen atoms of the acid are replaced by the positive
    ion of the base.
  2. Sodium chloride, the prototypical salt.
  3. A saline cathartic, especially magnesium sulfate,
    sodium sulfate, or Rochelle salt; often denoted by the plural, salts


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Constant

A quantity that, under stated conditions, does not vary with changes in the environment.


Sicchasia

Loathing for food


Oral

Relating to the mouth.


Papillomavirus

A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing double-stranded circular DNA (MW 5 ???? 106), having virions about 55 nm in diameter, and including the papilloma and wart viruses of humans and other animals, some of which are associated with induction of carcinoma. More than 70 types are known to infect humans and are differentiated by DNA homology


Adenocarcinoma

A malignant neoplasm of epithelial cells with a glandular or glandlike pattern


Epstein

  1. Michael Anthony, 20th-century English virologist.
  2. See Epstein-Barr
    virus


Venter

  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


Emesis

Combining form, used in the suffix position, for vomiting


Abdomen

The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Small intestine

the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum (beginning of the large intestine); it consists of three portions duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; its primary function is the continued digestion of chyme and the absorption of nutrients into the lymphatic (fats) and portal venous system, through its mucosal surface, which is highly modified to provide surface area for this purpose


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Herpesvirus

Any virus belonging to the family Herpesviridae.


Genitalia

The organs of reproduction or generation, external and internal


Immunodeficiency

A condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism; may be primary (due to a defect in the immune mechanism itself) or secondary (dependent on another disease process), specific (due to a defect in either the B-lymphocyte or the T-lymphocyte system, or both) or nonspecific (due to a defect in one or another component of the nonspecific immune mechanism the complement, properdin, or phagocytic system)


Radiation therapy

  1. treatment with x-rays or radionuclides.
  2. See radiation
    oncology


Gall

An excoriation or erosion


Medicinal

Relating to medicine having curative properties


Semen

The penile ejaculate; a thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid containing sperms; a mixture produced by secretions of the testes, seminal glands, prostate, and bulbourethral glands


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Gene

A functional unit of heredity that occupies a specific place (locus) on a chromosome, is capable of reproducing itself exactly at each cell division, and directs the formation of an enzyme or other protein. The gene as a functional unit consists of a discrete segment of a giant DNA molecule containing the purine (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidine (cytosine and thymine) bases in the correct sequence to code the sequence of amino acids of a specific peptide. Protein synthesis is mediated by molecules of messenger RNA formed on the chromosome with the gene acting as a template. The RNA then passes into the cytoplasm and becomes oriented on the ribosomes where it in turn acts as a template to organize a chain of amino acids to form a peptide. In organisms reproducing sexually, genes normally occur in pairs in all cells except gametes, as a consequence of the fact that all chromosomes are paired except the sex chromosomes (X and Y) of the male


Ventriculus

The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Anus

The lower opening of the digestive tract. It is associated with the anal sphincter and lies in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded


Cosmic rays

high-velocity particles of enormous energies, bombarding earth from outer space; the ??????primary radiation?????? consists of protons and more complex atomic nuclei that, on striking the atmosphere, give rise to neutrons, mesons, and other less energetic ??????secondary radiation.??????


Germs

microphobia.


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Intestine

The digestive tube passing from the stomach to the anus. It is divided primarily into the small intestine (intestinum tenue) and the large intestine (intestinum crassum)


Gamma

  1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet, ????.
  2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 10??????9 T.


Birth canal

cavity of the uterus and vagina through which the fetus passes


Cirrhosis

A chronic liver disease of highly various etiology characterized by inflammation, degeneration, and regeneration in differing proportions; pathologic hallmark is formation of microscopic or macroscopic nodules separated by bands of fibrous tissue; impairment of hepatocellular function and obstruction to portal circulation often lead to jaundice, ascites, and hepatic failure.


Accident

An unplanned or unintended but sometimes predictable event leading to injury, in traffic, industry, or a domestic setting, or such an event developing in the course of a disease.


Urine

The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.


Melanoma

A malignant neoplasm, derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, arising most commonly in the skin of any part of the body, or in the eye, and, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites; occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or lentigo maligna. In the early phases, the cutaneous form is characterized by proliferation of cells at the dermal-epidermal junction, that soon invade adjacent tissues. The cells vary in amount and pigmentation of cytoplasm; the nuclei are relatively large and frequently bizarre in shape, with prominent acidophilic nucleoli; mitotic figures tend to be numerous. Prognosis correlates with the depth of skin invasion. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely; regional lymph nodes, skin, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. Intense, intermittent sun exposure, especially of fair-skinned children, increases the risk of melanoma later in life


Apc

Acronym for acetylsalicylic acid, phenacetin, and caffeine; in combination, formerly a widely used antipyretic and analgesic; antigen-presenting cell.


Endocrine

  1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic
    circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.
  2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless
    gland.
  3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal
    secretion.


Liver

The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastric region; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1??????2 kg, or about one fortieth the weight of the body. As an exocrine gland, it secretes bile; it initially receives most absorbed nutrients through the portal vein; it detoxifies drugs and many exogeneous substances and is also of great importance in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; also stores glycogen


Orifice

Any aperture or opening


Thyroid gland

an endocrine (ductless) gland consisting of irregularly spheroid follicles, lying in front and to the sides of the upper part of the trachea and lower part of the larynx and of horseshoe shape, with two lateral lobes connected by a narrow central portion, the isthmus; and occasionally an elongated offshoot, the pyramidal lobe, which passes upward from the isthmus in front of the larynx. It is supplied by branches from the external carotid and subclavian arteries, and its nerves are derived from the middle cervical and cervicothoracic ganglia of the sympathetic system. It secretes thyroid hormone and calcitonin


Medullary

Relating to the medulla or marrow


Indolent

Inactive; sluggish; painless or nearly so, said of a morbid process.


Hormone

A chemical substance, formed in one organ or part of the body and carried in the blood to another organ or part where they exert functional effects; depending on the specificity of their effects, hormones can alter the functional activity, and sometimes the structure, of just one organ or tissue or various numbers of them. Various hormones are formed by ductless glands, but molecules such as secretin, cholecystokinin/somatostatin, formed in the gastrointestinal tract, by definition are also hormones. The definition of hormone has been recently extended to chemical substances formed by cells and acting on neighboring cells (paracrine function) or the same cells that produce them (autocrine function). For hormones not listed below, see specific names.


Hbv

Abbreviation for hepatitis B virus.


Medicine

  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.
  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


Dose

  1. The quantity of a drug or other remedy to be taken or
    applied all at one time or in fractional amounts within a given period.
  2. nuclear medicine amount of energy absorbed per unit
    mass of irradiated material (absorbed dose).


Gut

  1. Embryonic digestive tube.
  2. Abbreviated term for catgut


Radiation

radiophobia.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Benign

Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.


Eye

  1. The organ of vision that consists of the eyeball and
    the optic nerve;
  2. The area of the eye, including lids and other
    accessory organs of the eye; the contents of the orbit (common)


Organa

Plural of organum.


Rhinopharyngeal

Relating to the rhinopharynx


Pharynx

The superior expanded portion of the alimentary tract, between the mouth and nasal cavities (superiorly and anteriorly) and the esophagus (inferiorly); consisting of nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx, the first two being shared with the respiratory tract; the pharnyx is distinct from the rest of the alimentary tract in being composed exclusively of voluntary skeletal muscle arranged in outer circular and inner longitudinal layers.


Lung

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Generate

  1. To produce.
  2. To procreate.


Parturient

Relating to or in the process of childbirth.


Ebv

Abbreviation for Epstein-Barr virus.


Cervical

Relating to a neck, or cervix, in any sense


Organism

Any living individual, whether plant or animal, considered as a whole.


Irradiation

  1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen
    against a dark background.
  2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation
    (heat, light, x-rays).
  3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in
    the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.


Intestinum

Inward; inner


Genetic

Pertaining to genetics; genetical.


Uterine

Relating to the uterus.


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Medical

Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine


Radioactive

Possessing radioactivity


Follicular

Relating to a follicle or follicles.


Simple

  1. Not complex or compound.
  2. In anatomy, composed of a minimum number of parts.
  3. A medicinal herb.


Msh

Abbreviation for melanocyte-stimulating hormone.


Esophagus

The portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25-cm long and consists of three parts the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.


Genital system

the complex system consisting of the male or female gonads, associated ducts, and external genitalia dedicated to the function of reproducing the species


Ambulatory

Walking about or able to walk about; denoting a patient who is not confined to bed or hospital as a result of disease or surgery.


Infectious

  1. A disease capable of being transmitted from person to
    person, with or without actual contact.
  2. Denoting a disease due to the action of a
    microorganism


Squamous

Relating to or covered with scales


Vaginal

Relating to the vagina or to any sheath.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Urethra

The canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.


Sternberg

  1. George M., U.S. bacteriologist, 1838??????1915.
  2. See Sternberg
    cell, Sternberg-Reed cell, Reed-Sternberg cell


Dioxide

A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


Vomiting

The ejection of matter from the stomach in retrograde fashion through the esophagus and mouth


Abdominal

Relating to the abdomen.


Heart

A hollow muscular organ that receives the blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries. In mammals it is divided by a musculomembranous septum into two halves??????right or venous and left or arterial??????each of which consists of a receiving chamber (atrium) and an ejecting chamber (ventricle)


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

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