Cancer Methylation

Cancer Methylation

Cancer Methylation

Moreover, we are able to make the following findings regarding Cancer Methylation :

  • It’s been found that, recent work from our lab indicates that H (hypodermic (i.e., subcutaneous, or hypodermic injection))4.[1]
  • It looks that, k20me3 localizes to the promoter of the TMS1/ASC (Ambulatory surgery Center (ASC)) cistron in human breast (i.e., mamma, or teat) malignant neoplastic disease (i.e., illness, or morbus) cells in which it is methylated and transcriptionally silent, suggesting that H (hypodermic)4.[1] Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ (i.e., organum, or organon) located on the chest (i.e., pectus). The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland).
  • It is clear that, k20me3 likewise plays an imortant role as presented here.[1]
  • One can believe that, granted these cimp and cimp- cancers could very well be concordant for methylation in another subset of genes, but there is noneffervescent discord in the first set of genes.[2] Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat, muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord. Also called malignancy. Gene is the functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of Dna, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein. Methylation is a chemical reaction in which a little corpuscle (i.e., corpusculum) called a methyl
    group is added to other molecules. Methylation of proteins or nucleic acids
    may affect how they act in the organic structure (i.e., structura).
  • One can recognize, evidence for a CIMP phenotype among breast malignant neoplastic disease only recently emerged from a methylation profiling study analyzing a set of breast cancer cell lines.[3] Breast cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the breast, usually the ducts (tubes that carry milk to the nipple (i.e., papilla mammae, or mammilla)) and lobules (glands that make milk). It occurs in both men and women, although male (i.e., masculine) breast (i.e.,
    mamma masculina, or mamma virilis) cancer is rare.
  • It’s been discovered that, the relationship of DNA hypomethylation to tumorigenesis is important to be considered in the light of cancer therapies involving decreasing DNA methylation.[4]
  • It looks that, bosom malignant neoplastic disease is another tumor type in which multiple changes in methylation of cancer related genes have been reported.[5]
  • It’s that, and postoperative samples is the most accurate method to identify cancer specific gene methylation in saliva (i.e., spittle).[6] Postoperative, after surgery. Saliva is the watery fluid in the mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium) made by the salivary (i.e., sialic, or
    sialine) glands. Saliva moistens food to assistance digestion and it helps
    protect the mouth against infections.
  • It has been discovered that, the distinct nature of Advertizement and Sq (subsequent) means an optimal lung (i.e., pulmo) cancer methylation panel.[7] Lung cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air (i.e., ventilate) passages. The two main types are small cell (i.e., oat cell) lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. Lung, one of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
  • Finally, you can conclude that, sequencing aids (i.e., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (i.e., aids)) learn of cancer methylation in this article.[8] AIDS is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency (i.e., immune deficiency, or immunity deficiency) virus (i.e., filtrable virus) (Hiv). People with AIDS are at an increased risk for developing certain cancers and for infections that usually take place merely in individuals with a weak immune system. As well called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Terminology


Injection

  1. Introduction of a medicinal substance or nutrient
    material into subcutaneous tissue (subcutaneous or hypodermic injection),
    muscular tissue (intramuscular injection), a vein (intravenous injection), an
    artery (intraarterial injection), the rectum (rectal injection or enema), the
    vagina (vaginal injection or douche), the urethra, or other canals or cavities
    of the body.
  2. An injectable pharmaceutical preparation.
  3. Congestion or hyperemia.


Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15??????24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


Lymph

A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Sq

Abbreviation for subcutaneous.


Cimp

Abbreviation for cyclic inosine 3??????,5??????-monophosphate.


Myelomatosis

A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


Spinal

  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


Mammilla

A small rounded elevation resembling the female breast


Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Adipose

Denoting fat.


Leukocytic

Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


Virus

  1. Formerly, the specific agent of an infectious
    disease.
  2. Specifically, a term for a group of infectious
    agents, which, with few exceptions, are capable of passing through fine
    filters that retain most bacteria, are usually not visible through the light
    microscope, lack independent metabolism, and are incapable of growth or
    reproduction apart from living cells. They have a prokaryotic genetic
    apparatus but differ sharply from bacteria in other respects. The complete
    particle usually contains either DNA or RNA, not both, and is usually covered
    by a protein shell or capsid that protects the nucleic acid. They range in
    size from 15 to several hundred nanometers. Classification of viruses depends
    on physiochemical characteristics of virions as well as on mode of
    transmission, host range, symptomatology, and other factors. For viruses not
    listed below, see the specific name.
  3. Relating to or caused by a virus, as a viral
    disease.
  4. Obsolete usage. From before the development of
    bacteriology, any agent thought to cause disease, including a chemical
    substance such as an enzyme (??????ferment??????) similar to snake venom;
    synonymous at that time with ??????poison.??????
  5. Synonyms filtrable virus


Small cell

a short, bluntly spindle-shaped cell that contains a relatively large, hyperchromatic nucleus, frequently observed in some forms of undifferentiated bronchogenic carcinoma


Organ

Any part of the body exercising a specific function (respiration, secretion, or digestion)


Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Glandular

Relating to a gland


Corpuscle

  1. A small mass or body.
  2. A blood cell


Ostium

A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


Brain

That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


Tissue

A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them. There are four basic kinds of tissue in the body epithelium; connective tissues including adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage; muscle tissue; and nerve tissue.


Cavity

  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
    caries


Medulla

Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Postoperative

Following an operation.


Cartilage

A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Syndrome

The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease.


Leukemia

Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


Ambulatory surgery

operative procedures performed on patients who are admitted to and discharged from a hospital on the same day.


Papilla

Any small, nipplelike process


Myeloma

  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.
  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Filtrable

Capable of passing a filter; frequently applied to smaller viruses and some bacteria.


Neoplastic

Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Mammary

Relating to the breasts.


Oral

Relating to the mouth.


Salivary

Relating to saliva


Ventilate

To aerate, or oxygenate, the blood in the pulmonary capillaries


Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


Malignancy

The property or condition of being malignant.


Immunodeficiency

A condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism; may be primary (due to a defect in the immune mechanism itself) or secondary (dependent on another disease process), specific (due to a defect in either the B-lymphocyte or the T-lymphocyte system, or both) or nonspecific (due to a defect in one or another component of the nonspecific immune mechanism the complement, properdin, or phagocytic system)


Lymphoma

Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Masculine

Relating to or marked by the characteristics of the male sex or gender


Heredity

  1. The transmission of characters from parent to
    offspring by information encoded in the parental germ cells.
  2. Genealogy.


Saliva

A clear, tasteless, odorless, slightly acidic (pH 6.8) viscid fluid, consisting of the secretion from the parotid, sublingual, and submandibular salivary glands and the mucous glands of the oral cavity; its function is to keep the mucous membrane of the mouth moist, to lubricate food during mastication, and, in a measure, to convert starch into maltose, the latter action being effected by a diastatic enzyme, ptyalin


Sequencing

The determination of the sequence of subunits in a macromolecule.


Promoter

  1. In chemistry, a substance that increases the activity
    of a catalyst.
  2. In molecular biology, a DNA sequence at which RNA
    polymerase binds and initiates transcription.


Methylation

Addition of methyl groups; in histochemistry, used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid, the net effect being to reduce tissue basophilia and abolish metachromasia.


Concordant

Denoting or exhibiting concordance.


Hiv

Abbreviation for human immunodeficiency virus.


Malignant

  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


Cistron

  1. The smallest functional unit of heritability; a
    length of chromosomal DNA associated with a single biochemical function. Under
    classical concepts, a gene might consist of more than one cistron; in modern
    molecular biology, the cistron is essentially equivalent to the structural
    gene.
  2. The genetic unit defined by the cis/trans test.


Lung

One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Immunity

  1. The status or quality of being immune (1).
  2. Protection against infectious disease


Phenotype

The observable characteristics, at the physical, morphologic, or biochemical level, of an individual, as determined by the genotype and environment.


Dna

Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Tumorigenesis

Production of a new growth or growths.


Interstitial

  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any
    structure.
  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


Alzheimer

  1. Alois, German neurologist, 1864??????1915.
  2. See Alzheimer
    dementia, Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer sclerosis


Chondrus

The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Lac

Any whitish, milklike liquid


Ambulatory

Walking about or able to walk about; denoting a patient who is not confined to bed or hospital as a result of disease or surgery.


Nervous

  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.
  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Lactiferous

Yielding milk.


Immunodeficiency syndrome

an immunologic deficiency or disorder, of which the chief symptom is an increased susceptibility to infection, the pattern of susceptibility being dependent on the kind of deficiency.


Dioxide

A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


Sarcoma

A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.

Related Material

  1. Cancer DNA Methylation: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications
  2. What the hell is CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)? – DNA Methylation, Histone and Chromatin Study
  3. PLoS ONE: Array-Based DNA Methylation Profiling for Breast Cancer Subtype Discrimination
  4. DNA methylation in cancer: too much, but also too little
  5. DNA methylation and cancer
  6. Methylation Array Analysis of Preoperative and Postoperative Saliva DNA in Oral Cancer Patients

  7. Molecular Cancer | Full text | DNA methylation-based biomarkers for early detection of non-small cell lung cancer: an update
  8. Sequencing aids study of cancer methylation | Application Story | Laboratorytalk

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