Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium
Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium
Regarding oral epithelium we are able to identify the following common details, observations, and also results:
- For instance, these data form the basis (i.e., base) of a proposed new model of Ebv transition from blood (i.e., haema) to oral epithelium in which EBV-infected Langerhans cell precursors serve to transport EBV to the oral epithelium as they migrate and differentiate into oral Langerhans cells (i.e., interdigitating dendritic cells). Oral, by or having to do with the mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium). Epithelium is a thin layer (i.e., panniculus) of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body (i.e., corpus). EBV is a common virus (i.e., filtrable virus) that remains dormant in most people. It causes infectious (i.e., infective) mononucleosis (i.e., benign lymphadenosis, or glandular fever) and has been associated with certain cancers, including Burkitt lymphoma, immunoblastic lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal (i.e., rhinopharyngeal) carcinoma. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems. There are several main types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Likewise called Epstein–Barr virus. Blood is a tissue with red blood cells, white (i.e., albicans) blood cells, platelets, and other substances suspended in fluid called plasma (i.e., blood plasma). Blood takes oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and carries away wastes. Cell is the
individual unit that makes up the tissues of the body. All living things are
made up of one or more cells.
- It looks that, the low expression (i.e., facies) of Mcm2 in the basal (i.e., basalis) layer (i.e., stratum basale) of the normal oral epithelium was an unexpected finding but is in keeping with the suggestion of a self-defence mechanism to maintain a controlled cell proliferation of the oral mucous membrane (i.e., biomembrane, or membrana). Cell proliferation
is an gain in the number of cells as a result of cell growth and cell division
- It’s been found that, the use of oral epithelium as a model for the investigation of the behaviour of proliferative subpopulations followed on from the work that had already begun in rodent skin.
- For instance, advances in our apprehension of the proliferative organization in oral epithelial tissue has been a slow process (i.e., processus) for several reasons.
- You can conclude that, in the context of oral epithelium, an accelerated growth phase depicted by broadening the progenitor compartment (i.e., compartimentum) (hyperplasia (i.e., numeric hypertrophy, or quantitative hypertrophy)) is the earlier sequel of exposure to an irritant. Hyperplasia is an abnormal increase in the number of
normal cells in an organ or tissue.
- It might seem apparant that, topical cryotherapy may ameliorate mucositis caused by agents such as five-fluorouracil (5-FU) by reducing vascular delivery of these toxic (i.e., poisonous) agents to replicating oral epithelial tissue. Fluorouracil is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast (i.e., mamma, or teat), stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus), and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head (i.e., caput) and neck (i.e., cervix, or collum) cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell (i.e., basilar cell) skin cancer and actinic keratosis (i.e., senile keratoderma, or senile keratoma) (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. Fluorouracil stops cells from making Dna and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, 5-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, and Fluoroplex. Toxic, having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances usually cause unwanted side effects. 5-FU is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. 5-FU stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Also called 5-fluorouracil, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil. 5-fluorouracil is a drug used to treat cancers of the breast, stomach, and pancreas, and certain types of colorectal and head and neck cancers. It is also used in a cream to treat basal cell skin cancer and actinic keratosis (a skin condition that may become cancer). It is being studied in the treatment of other conditions and types of cancer. five-fluorouracil stops cells from making DNA and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Likewise called five-FU, Adrucil, Efudex, Fluoroplex, and fluorouracil. Cryotherapy, any method acting that uses cold (i.e., frigid) temperature to treat disease. Mucositis is a complication of some cancer therapies in which the lining of the digestive (i.e., digestant) system becomes inflamed. Often seen as sores in the mouth. Topical, on the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of
- One can identify, three distinct keratinocyte subtypes identified in human oral epithelium by their patterns of keratin expression in culture (i.e., cultivation). Culture is the beliefs, values, and behaviors that are shared within a group, such as a religious group or a nation. Culture includes language, customs, and
beliefs about roles and relationships.
- One can notice, an in vitro organotypic raft culture model of oral epithelial tissue was produced using oral keratinocytes isolated from human tonsils. In vitro is in the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).
- It’s been found that, the cells which comprise the basal layer of the oral epithelium suffer a high degree of mitotic activity which is like to actively dividing malignant cells. Mitotic activity, having to perform with the presence of dividing (proliferating) cells. Cancer tissue generally has more mitotic activity than normal tissues. Malignant, cancerous. Malignant cells can invade and
destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer Replicating Oral Epithelium relevant discoveries consist of, but are not limited by:
- One can determine that, by taking advantage of current knowledge in malignant neoplastic disease biology and virology, specific OVs have been genetically engineered to target (i.e., target organ) specific molecules or signal transduction pathways in cancer cells in order to reach efficient and selective replication. Signal transduction is the procedure by which a cell responds to substances in its environment. The binding of a substance to a molecule on the open of a cell causes signals to be passed from one molecule to another inside the cell. These signals can involve many functions of the cell, including cell variance and cell death (i.e., mors). Cells that have
lasting changes in signal transduction molecules may develop into cancer.
- It seems that, br J Cancer ninety four 11701175|||| Shetty A, Loddo M, Fanshawe T, Prevost AT, Sainsbury R (rectal), Williams GH, Stoeber K (2005) DNA replication licensing and cell cycle (i.e., mitotic cycle (i.e., cell cycle)) kinetics of normal and
neoplastic bosom is presented here. Cell cycle is the procedure a cell goes through each time it divides. The cell cycle consists of a series of steps during which the chromosomes and other cell stuff double to create two copies. The cell then divides into two daughter cells, each receiving one written
matter (i.e., substance) of the doubled material. The cell cycle is complete
when each daughter cell is surrounded by its own outer tissue layer. As well
called mitotic cycle.
- One can notice, normal oral mucosal epithelium is estimated to undergo complete replacement every nine to sixteen days. Mucosa is the moist, inner lining of some organs and organic structure cavities (such as the nose (i.e., nasus), mouth, lungs, and abdomen (i.e., venter)). Glands in the mucosa make mucous secretion (a thick, slippery fluid). Also
called mucous tissue layer.
- Finally, it looks that, the production of a nonkeratinized organotypic raft civilization model of oral epithelial tissue was a critical component of these studies.
a cell of the deepest layer of stratified epithelium
General increase in bulk of a part or organ, not due to tumor formation. Use of the term may be restricted to denote greater bulk through increase in size, but not in number, of cells or other individual tissue elements
- The propagation of microorganisms on or in media of
- A mass of microorganisms on or in a medium.
- The propagation of mammalian cells, cell culture.
- A set of beliefs, values, artistic, historical, and
religious characteristics, and customs common to a community or nation
Relating to or marked by mitosis.
Relating to the base of a pyramidal or broad structure.
- A recurrent series of events.
- A recurring period of time.
- One successive compression and rarefaction of a wave,
as of a sound wave.
- Denis P., British physician in Uganda,
- noise ratio
- the relative intensity of a signal to the random
variation in signal intensity, or noise; used to evaluate many imaging
techniques and electronic systems.
A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.
- Relating to any spine or spinous process.
- Relating to the vertebral column
the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)
Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes
- The smallest unit of living structure capable of
independent existence, composed of a membrane-enclosed mass of protoplasm and
containing a nucleus or nucleoid. Cells are highly variable and specialized in
both structure and function, although all must at some stage replicate
proteins and nucleic acids, use energy, and reproduce themselves.
- A small closed or partly closed cavity; a compartment
or hollow receptacle.
- A container of glass, ceramic, or other solid
material within which chemical reactions generating electricity take place or
solutions are placed for photometric assays.
- Anna W., U.S. bacteriologist, 1863??????1955.
stain, Park-Williams fixative
- Formerly, the specific agent of an infectious
- Specifically, a term for a group of infectious
agents, which, with few exceptions, are capable of passing through fine
filters that retain most bacteria, are usually not visible through the light
microscope, lack independent metabolism, and are incapable of growth or
reproduction apart from living cells. They have a prokaryotic genetic
apparatus but differ sharply from bacteria in other respects. The complete
particle usually contains either DNA or RNA, not both, and is usually covered
by a protein shell or capsid that protects the nucleic acid. They range in
size from 15 to several hundred nanometers. Classification of viruses depends
on physiochemical characteristics of virions as well as on mode of
transmission, host range, symptomatology, and other factors. For viruses not
listed below, see the specific name.
- Relating to or caused by a virus, as a viral
- Obsolete usage. From before the development of
bacteriology, any agent thought to cause disease, including a chemical
substance such as an enzyme (??????ferment??????) similar to snake venom;
synonymous at that time with ??????poison.??????
Synonyms filtrable virus
Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment
Relating to or characteristic of old age.
an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.
Relating to a gland
obsolete term for angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.
Relating to the nasopharynx
Inflammation of a mucous membrane.
Object or substance that provides floatation to another.
The basic underlying proliferative process that results in enlargement of lymph nodes, as in lymphocytic leukemia and certain inflammations.
Relating to digestion
A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.
That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.
- Situated nearer the base of a pyramidal organ in
relation to a specific reference point; opposite of apical.
- In dentistry, denoting the floor of a cavity in the
grinding surface of a tooth.
- Denoting a standard or reference state of a function,
as a basis for comparison. More specifically, denoting the exact conditions
for measurement of basal metabolic rate (q.v.); basal conditions do not always
denote a minimum value, metabolic rate in sleep is usually lower than the
basal rate but is inconvenient for standard measurement
- dendritic clear cells in the epidermis, containing
distinctive granules that appear rod- or racket-shaped in section, but lacking
tonofilaments, melanosomes, and desmosomes; they carry surface receptors for
immunoglobulin (Fc) and complement (C3), and are believed to be antigen fixing
and processing cells of monocytic origin; active participants in cutaneous
- cells seen in eosinophilic granuloma and lymphoma of
- the outermost layer of the endometrium that undergoes
only minimal changes during the menstrual cycle;
basale epidermidis, basal layer
A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them. There are four basic kinds of tissue in the body epithelium; connective tissues including adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage; muscle tissue; and nerve tissue.
A cell of the living epidermis and certain oral epithelium that produces keratin in the process of differentiating into the dead and fully keratinized cells of the stratum corneum.
- A hollow space; hole.
- Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental
Relating to a definite place or locality; local.
a tissue or organ on which a hormone exerts its action; generally, a tissue or organ with appropriate receptors for a hormone
- Aiding digestion.
- An agent that favors or assists the process of
Relating to or containing blood vessels.
Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part
- Murray L., Canadian microanatomist,
A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries
Pertaining to a toxin
Relating to the chemically active rays of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes
The study of viruses and of viral disease.
Capable of transmitting an infection
- Part of body by which the head is connected to the
trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.
- In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
resemblance to the neck of an animal.
- The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
behind the scolex
Any necklike structure
The purely cellular avascular layer covering all free surfaces, cutaneous, mucous, and serous, including the glands and other structures derived therefrom.
- A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
tissues of the bone marrow.
- A plasma cell tumor.
Relating to or consisting of epithelium.
Capable of passing a filter; frequently applied to smaller viruses and some bacteria.
The use of cold in the treatment of disease.
a premalignant warty lesion occurring on the sun-exposed skin of the face or hands in aged light-skinned persons; hyperkeratosis may form a cutaneous horn, and squamous cell carcinoma of low-grade malignancy may develop in a small proportion of untreated patients
Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.
A thin sheet or layer of pliable tissue, serving as a covering or envelope of a part, as the lining of a cavity, as a partition or septum, or as a connection of two structures
- Partitioned-off portion of a larger bound space; a
separate section or chamber; the compartments of the limbs are bound deeply by
bones and intermuscular septa and superficially by deep fascia and generally
are not in communication with the other compartments, and thus infection or
increased pathologic pressure may be limited to one compartment; muscles
contained within the compartments of the limbs share similar functions and
- A separate division; specifically, a structural or
biochemical portion of a cell that is separated from the rest of the cell.
- A chemical or physical subdivision of a system in
which the ratio of the concentration of a labeled entity to that of an
unlabled entity is constant over a defined period
- An object fixed as goal or point of examination.
- In the ophthalmometer, the mire.
- Anode of an x-ray tube
Relating to the mouth.
- Paul, German anatomist, 1847??????1888.
cells, under cell, Langerhans granule, Langerhans islands, under island,
islets of Langerhans, under islet
A precursor, ancestor; one who begets.
The implanting of an idea in the mind of another by some word or act on one’s part, the subject’s conduct or physical condition being influenced to some degree by the implanted idea.
In the living body, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein.
- Michael Anthony, 20th-century English virologist.
- One of the great cavities of the body.
- The uterus
Relating to the mucosa or mucous membrane.
The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions
the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location
- Production by a cell or aggregation of cells (a
gland) of a physiologically active substance and its movement out of the cell
or organ in which it is formed.
- The solid, liquid, or gaseous product of cellular or
glandular activity that is stored in or used by the organism in which it is
The property or condition of being malignant.
Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.
- The execution of an experiment or study more than
once so as to confirm the original findings, increase precision, and obtain a
closer estimate of sampling error.
- Autoreproduction or duplication, as in mitosis or
- DNA-directed DNA synthesis.
The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs
A horny tumor
the periodic biochemical and structural events occurring during proliferation of cells such as in tissue culture; the cycle is divided into phases called G0, Gap1 (G1), synthesis (S1), Gap2 (G2), and mitosis (M). The period runs from one division to the next
Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.
- Any horny superficial growth.
- A generalized thickening of the horny layer of the
The use of spoken, manual, written, and other symbols to express, represent, or receive communication.
Presence of abnormally large numbers of mononuclear leukocytes in the circulating blood, especially with reference to forms that are not normal.
Relating to the colon and rectum, or to the entire large bowel.
- occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.
- In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.
- Irritating; causing irritation.
- Any agent with this action.
Denoting the mild character of an illness or the nonmalignant character of a neoplasm.
Relating to the rhinopharynx
An increase in the number of normal cells in a tissue or organ, excluding tumor formation, whereby the bulk of the part or organ may be increased
- Transfer of genetic material (and its phenotypic
expression) from one cell to another by viral infection.
- A form of genetic recombination in bacteria.
- Conversion of energy from one form to another.
Relating to the dendrites of nerve cells
Abbreviation for Epstein-Barr virus.
Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.
In an artificial environment, referring to a process or reaction occurring therein, as in a test tube or culture medium.
- The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body,
containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.
- The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or
rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.
- The rounded extremity of a bone.
- That end of a muscle that is attached to the less
movable part of the skeleton
The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders
Relating to mucus or a mucous membrane.
An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.
Symbol for micrometer.
- Passage from one condition or one part to another.
- In polynucleic acid, replacement of a purine base by
another purine base or a pyrimidine base by a different pyrimidine.
the cessation of respiration within the cell that stops the production of energy, nutrients, active molecular transport, and the like.
- A disease capable of being transmitted from person to
person, with or without actual contact.
- Denoting a disease due to the action of a
- Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
- Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
emotional instability; tense or anxious.
- Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.
The science concerned with the phenomena of life and living organisms.
A structure bounding a cell or cell organelle; it contains lipids, proteins, glycolipids, steroids, etc
Any lesion on the epidermis marked by the presence of circumscribed overgrowths of the horny layer.
The study of motion, acceleration, or rate of change.
- In nuclear medicine, an isotope that is the
disintegration product of a radionuclide.
isotope, radionuclide generator
- An arrangement or grouping of the parts of anything
that has a definite action.
- The means by which an effect is obtained.
- The chain of events in a particular process.
- The detailed description of a reaction pathway.
One of the layers of differentiated tissue, the aggregate of which forms any given structure, such as the retina or the skin.
Increasing the numbers of similar forms.
A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.
A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.
- Epstein-Barr virus infection and human malignancies.
- British Journal of Cancer – Expression of Mcm2, geminin and Ki67 in normal oral mucosa, oral epithelial dysplasias and their corresponding squamous-cell carcinomas
- Oral leukoplakia (leukokeratosis): Compilation of facts and figures Rajendran R – J Oral Maxillofac Pathol
- Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ – National Cancer Institute
- Activation of Kaposi`s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Gene Expression during Epithelial Differentiation
- Oral Cancer – Nursing Link