Cancer Radiation (i.e., radiatio)-chemotherapy-induced Changes Chemotherapy-induced

Cancer Radiation-chemotherapy-induced Changes Chemotherapy-induced

Cancer Radiation (i.e., radiatio)-chemotherapy-induced Changes Chemotherapy-induced

The following cns leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) items illustrate a higher amount of meaning:

  1. You can conclude that, this concept (i.e., conception) was widely accepted until 1997, when we identified a grouping of non-irradiated children with ALL without CNS (Central Nervous system (i.e., systema) (i.e., systema nervosum) (CNS)) leukemia who developed prove of methotrexate (i.e., amethopterin) leukoencephalopathy on Ct (Computerized Tomographic (scanners) (CT)) and magnetic resonance (i.e., resonant frequency) imaging (Mri) scans associated with concomitant (i.e., comitant) cognitive changes (unpublished data).[1] Therapy, treatment. Concomitant, occurring or existing at the equivalent time as something else. In medicine, it may refer to a condition a person has or a medication a person is taking that is not being studied in the clinical run he or she is taking part (i.e., pars) in. MRI is a procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body (i.e., corpus). These pictures can show the difference between normal and diseased tissue. MRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other scanning techniques, such as computed tomography (i.e., conventional tomography, or planigraphy) (CT) or x-beam. MRI is especially useful for imaging the encephalon, the spine (i.e., vertebral column, or spina), the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones. Also called magnetic vibrancy imaging, NMRI, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging). Chemotherapy, treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone, cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Imaging is in medicine, a process (i.e., processus) that makes pictures of areas inside the organic structure (i.e., structura). Imaging uses methods such as x-rays (high-zip radiation), ultrasound (high-energy sound waves), and radio waves. ALL is an aggressive (fast-growing) type of leukemia (blood cancer) in which too many lymphoblasts (unfledged white (i.e., albicans) blood cells) are found in the blood and bone marrow. Also called acute lymphoblastic leucaemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia (i.e., lymphatic leukemia, or lymphoid leukemia). Methotrexate is a drug used to care for some types of malignant neoplastic disease, rheumatoid arthritis (i.e., articular rheumatism), and severe skin conditions, such as psoriasis. Methotrexate stops cells from making Dna and may kill malignant neoplastic disease cells. It is a type of antimetabolite. Likewise called methotrexate sodium, MTX, and Rheumatrex. Irradiated, treated with radioactivity. Leukemia, cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and causes large numbers of blood cells to be produced and inscribe the bloodstream. Cell is the individual unit that makes up the tissues of the body. All living things are made up of one or more cells. Magnetic resonance imaging is a procedure in which wireless waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to make detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the deviation (i.e., deviance) between normal and diseased tissue. Magnetic resonance imaging makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other scanning techniques, such as computed tomography (ct) or x-beam. Magnetic resonance imaging is especially useful for imaging the encephalon, the spinal column (i.e., vertebral column) (i.e., columna), the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones. Also called MRI, NMRI, and atomic magnetic resonance imaging. CNS is the encephalon and spinal cord (i.e., medulla spinalis, or chorda
    spinalis). As well called central nervous scheme (i.e., schema).

  2. It would appear apparant that, the best data on the cognitive effects of chemotherapy alone experience come from studies of children with leukemia who did not have CNS (Central nervous system (cns)) leukemia.[1]

The significance of radiation therapy is additionally displayed through:

  1. It’s been found that, long-term effects of radiation therapy on cognitive and endocrine role in children with leukemia and brain tumors are shown here.[1] Endocrine, refers to tissue that makes and releases hormones that travel in the bloodstream and control the actions of other cells or organs. Some examples of endocrine tissues are the pituitary (i.e., pituitarium), thyroid, and adrenal glands. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external (i.e., externus)-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive (i.e., radio-) material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance (i.e., substantia, or matter), such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the body. Also called irradiation and radiotherapy (i.e., radiation oncology). Radiation, energy released in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves. Common sources of radiation include radon gas, cosmic rays from outer space (i.e., spatium), medical (i.e., medicinal, or medicinal) x-rays, and energy given off by a radioisotope (unstable form of a chemical
    element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable).

  2. You can conclude that, in a work in patients with advanced squamous (i.e., scaly) cell carcinoma of the head (i.e., caput) and neck (i.e., cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus), or collum) opening treated with radiation therapy, is discussed in Nordsmark et (and) al.[2] Carcinoma, cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or covert internal organs. Squamous cell carcinoma, cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that look like pisces scales. Squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the aerofoil of the tegument (i.e., integument, or integument), the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and digestive (i.e., digestant) tracts. Likewise called epidermoid carcinoma (i.e., epidermoid cancer). Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, cancer of the head and cervix that begins in squamous cells (thin, flat cells that form the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of the skin, eyes, various internal organs, and the lining of hollow organs and ducts of some glands). Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck includes cancers of the rhinal (i.e., nasal) cavity (i.e., cavitas, or cavernous space), sinuses, lips, mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium), salivary (i.e., sialic, or sialine) glands, throat (i.e., gullet), and larynx (voice (i.e., vox) box). Most head and neck opening cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Squamous cell, flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. These cells cover inside and outside surfaces of the body. They are found in the tissues that form the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body (such as the bladder, kidney (i.e., ren, or nephros), and uterus (i.e.,
    metra, or womb)), and the passages of the respiratory and digestive tracts.

These researched results can be made for Cancer Radiation-chemotherapy-induced Changes Chemotherapy-induced :

  • As an example, as with BCNU (i.e., carmustine) and CDDP, O-2.[1]
  • Apparently, a/OPCs were more sensitive (i.e., sensible) to adverse effects than were the leucaemia and lymphoma cell lines.[1] Lymphoma, cancer that begins in cells of the immune scheme. There are two basic categories of lymphomas. One kind is Hodgkin lymphoma (i.e., hodgkin disease), which is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the ReedSternberg cell (i.e., reed cell, or sternberg cell) (i.e., reed-sternberg cell). The other category is non-Hodgkin lymphomas, which includes a large, diverse grouping of cancers of immune system cells. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas can be further divided into cancers that make an indolent (slow-growing) course and those that
    have an aggressive (fast-growing) course. These subtypes behave and respond to
    handling differently. Both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in
    children and adults, and forecast and treatment depend on the stage and the
    type of cancer.

  • It would seem to be apparant that, oxygenation of head and neck cancer changes during radiation and impingement on treatment.[2] Head and neck cancer, cancer that arises in the head
    or neck region (i.e., regio) (in the rhinal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth,
    salivary glands, throat, or larynx [voice box]).

  • It’s possible to assume that, one appuniversal gas constantoach to correcting anemia in malignant neoplastic disease patients is administration of recombinant human erythropoietin.[2] Administration is in medicine, the act of giving a handling, such as a drug, to a patient. It can also refer to the way it is given, the dose, or how oftentimes it is given. Erythropoietin is a substance that is naturally produced by the kidneys, and that stimulates the bone marrow to make red river blood cells. When erythropoietin is made in the testing ground, it is called epoetin alfa or epoetin beta. Recombinant is in genetics, describes DNA, proteins, cells, or organisms that are made by combining genetic fabric from two different sources. Recombinant substances are made in the laboratory and are being studied in the handling of cancer and for many other uses. Anemia is a condition in which the figure of red
    river blood cells is below normal.

  • One can view (i.e., projection), ePO (epoetin) and
    its affects here.[2]

  • It’s that, prognostic impact of changes in the tumor tissue p is presented here.[2] Tissue is a grouping or layer (i.e., panniculus) of
    cells that work together to perform a specific function.

  • It’s apparent that, o2 during early radiotherapy in cervical (i.e., cervicalis) cancers improved local control in primarily hypoxic tumors with reoxygenation.[2] Cervical, relating to the neck, or to the neck of any organ or structure. Cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck. Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle), narrow end (the neck ) of the uterus. Hypoxic, having too little oxygen. Radiotherapy is the use of high-energy radiation from
    x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells
    and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body
    (external-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive material
    placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic
    radiotherapy uses a radioactive substance, such as a radiolabeled monoclonal
    antiorganic structure, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the
    body. As well called irirradiation and radiation therapy.

  • Finally, it would appear that, cancer treatment, a variety of hypoxia– and anemia-targeted therapies have been studied in an feat to improve therapeutic.[2] Hypoxia is a condition in which there is a decrement in the oxygen supply to a tissue. In cancer treatment, the level of hypoxia in a tumour may help predict the response of the tumor to the treatment. Therapeutic, having to do with treating disease and helping healing take spot (i.e., macula).



Any condition in which the number of red blood cells/mm3, the amount of hemoglobin in 100 mL of blood, and/or the volume of packed red blood cells/100 mL of blood are less than normal; clinically, generally pertaining to the concentration of oxygen-transporting material in a designated volume of blood, in contrast to total quantities as in oligocythemia, oligochromemia, and oligemia. Anemia is frequently manifested by pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, shortness of breath, palpitations of the heart, soft systolic murmurs, lethargy, and tendency to fatigue.


A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


Abbreviation for computed tomography.


The flowing blood as it is encountered in the circulatory system, as distinguished from blood that has been removed from the circulatory system or sequestered in a part; thus, something added to the bloodstream may be expected to become distributed to all parts of the body through which blood is flowing.

Lymphocytic leukemia

a variety of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation and conspicuous enlargement of lymphoid tissue in various sites (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, lungs), and the occurrence of increased numbers of cells of the lymphocytic series in the circulating blood and in various tissues and organs; in chronic disease, the cells are adult lymphocytes, whereas conspicuous numbers of lymphoblasts are observed in the more acute syndromes


  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.

  2. See detrusor


A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column

Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


That portion of the cerebrospinal axis contained within the cranium, composed of the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon.


Denoting fat.


Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes

Epidermoid carcinoma

squamous cell carcinoma of the skin or lung


  1. Decrease.
  2. Decrease in conduction velocity at a particular
    point; a result of altered properties at that point.


Relating to the nose


Relating to therapeutics or to treating, remediating, or curing a disorder or disease.

Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic,

  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the
    skin, mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the
    latter giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.

  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of
    a tooth.

  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm
    in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components,
    tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that
    usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1)
    an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous;
    2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large
    mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially
    (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence
    termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also
    be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes
    and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of
    fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable
    lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the
    term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians
    use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of
    undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles that control the position and tension of these elements.


  1. In chemistry, the manner in which electrons or
    electric charges are distributed among the atoms in compounds that are planar
    and symmetric, particularly those with conjugated (alternating) double bonds;
    the existence of resonance in the latter case reduces the energy content and
    increases the stability of compounds; such molecular entities have more than
    one contriubuting structure, each differing only in the distribution of

  2. Sympathetic or forced vibration of air in the
    cavities above, below, in front of, or behind a source of sound; in speech,
    modification of the quality (harmonics) of a tone by the passage of air
    through the chambers of the nose, pharynx, and head, without increasing the
    intensity of the sound.

  3. The sound obtained on percussion of a part that can
    vibrate freely.

  4. The intensification and hollow character of the voice
    sound obtained on auscultation over a cavity.

  5. The natural or inherent frequency of any oscillating


  1. Dorothy M., U.S. pathologist, 1874??????1964.
  2. See Reed cell,
    Reed-Sternberg cell, Sternberg-Reed cell


  1. Relating to prognosis.
  2. A symptom on which a prognosis is based, or one
    indicative of the likely outcome.

Hodgkin disease

a disease marked by chronic enlargement of the lymph nodes, often local at the onset and later generalized, together with enlargement of the spleen and often of the liver, no pronounced leukocytosis, and commonly anemia and continuous or remittent (Pel-Ebstein) fever; considered to be a malignant neoplasm of lymphoid cells of uncertain origin (Reed-Sternberg cells), associated with inflammatory infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophilic leukocytes and fibrosis; can be classified into lymphocytic predominant, nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity, and lymphocytic depletion types; a similar disease occurs in domestic cats

Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall


  1. The fauces and pharynx.
  2. The anterior aspect of the neck.
  3. Any narrowed entrance into a hollow part


Relating to digestion


A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


  1. The branch of science concerned with the means and
    consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biologic

  2. The genetic features and constitution of any single
    organism or set of organisms.


  1. Pertaining to lymph.
  2. A vascular channel that transports lymph.
  3. Sometimes used to pertain to a sluggish or phlegmatic


An antineoplastic agent


An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation.


A collection of similar cells and the intercellular substances surrounding them. There are four basic kinds of tissue in the body epithelium; connective tissues including adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage; muscle tissue; and nerve tissue.


Relating to a system; specifically somatic, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.


In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.


The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


  1. The enveloping membrane of the body; includes, in
    addition to the epidermis and dermis, all the derivatives of the epidermis,
    hairs, nails, sudoriferous and sebaceous glands, and mammary glands, as well
    as the subcutaneous tissue.

  2. The rind, capsule, or covering of any body or part


  1. A hollow space; hole.
  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental

Resonant frequency

the frequency at which individual magnetic nuclei absorb or emit radiofrequency energy in magnetic resonance studies


  1. Aiding digestion.
  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of


  1. Thomas, British physician, 1798??????1866.
  2. See Hodgkin
    disease, Hodgkin-Key murmur, non-Hodgkin lymphoma


Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease.


Denoting or characterized by hypoxia.


Decrease below normal levels of oxygen in inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissue, without reaching anoxia.


Pertaining to cognition.

Reed-sternberg cell

large transformed lymphocytes, probably B cell in origin, generally regarded as pathognomonic of Hodgkin disease; a typical cell has a pale-staining acidophilic cytoplasm and one or two large nuclei showing marginal clumping of chromatin and unusually conspicuous deeply acidophilic nucleoli; binucleate Reed-Sternberg cell frequently shows a mirror-image form (mirror-image cell)

Epoetin alfa

Recombinant human erythropoietin, a powerful stimulator of red blood cell synthesis. Often used in patients with anemia and in those undergoing transplants or cancer chemotherapy.


Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


Pertaining to or characterized by lymphocytes.


A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes

Gamma rays

electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive substances; they are high-energy x-rays but originate from the nucleus rather than the orbital shell and are not deflected by a magnet.


  1. The act of medicating.
  2. A medicinal substance, or medicament.


  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.

  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.

  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


  1. Resembling epidermis.
  2. A cholesteatoma or other cystic tumor arising from
    aberrant epidermal cells.


Relating to the pituitary gland (hypophysis)


Any necklike structure


The study or science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of neoplasms, including causation, pathogenesis, and treatment.

Vertebral column

the series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord


  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.

  2. A plasma cell tumor.


  1. Addition of oxygen to any chemical or physical

  2. Specifically used to describe interventions that
    provide greater oxygen supply to lungs and thus the circulation.


The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (???? and ???? rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in disintegrations per second (dps). One dps is equal to 1 becquerel, and 3.7 ???? 1010 dps equals 1 curie.


Relating to a joint


Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


A short, sharp, thornlike process of bone; a spinous process


Pertaining to the production of lymphocytes.


  1. An anatomic part or structure in the form of a pillar
    or cylindric funiculus.

  2. A vertical object (usually cylindric), mass, or


Relating to the mouth.


Relating to saliva


  1. Resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland)
    and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape.

  2. The cleaned, dried, and powdered thyroid gland
    obtained from one of the domesticated animals used for food and containing
    0.17??????0.23% of iodine; formerly widely used in the treatment of
    hypothyroidism, cretinism, and myxedema, in some cases of obesity, and in skin

Exclusive provider organization (epo)

A managed care plan in which enrollees must receive their care from affiliated providers; treatment provided outside the approved network must be paid for by the patients.

Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


The property or condition of being malignant.

Computed tomography (ct)

imaging anatomic information from a cross-sectional plane of the body, each image generated by a computer synthesis of x-ray transmission data obtained in many different directions in a given plane


Relating to medicine having curative properties


A folic acid antagonist used as an antineoplastic agent; used to treat psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis


Resembling rheumatoid arthritis in one or more features.


Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


Resembling lymph or lymphatic tissue, or pertaining to the lymphatic system.


  1. Obsolete term for rheumatic fever.
  2. Indefinite term applied to various conditions with
    pain or other symptoms of articular origin or related to other elements of the
    musculoskeletal system.

Cosmic rays

high-velocity particles of enormous energies, bombarding earth from outer
space; the ??????primary radiation?????? consists of protons and more complex
atomic nuclei that, on striking the atmosphere, give rise to neutrons, mesons,
and other less energetic secondary radiation.


  1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet.
  2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 109 T.


A superclass of vertebrates, generally known as fish; the term is sometimes confined to the bony fishes.


A tendinous or a cord-like structure.


A common multifactorial inherited condition characterized by the eruption of circumscribed, discrete and confluent, reddish, silvery-scaled maculopapules; the lesions occur predominantly on the elbows, knees, scalp, and trunk, and microscopically show characteristic parakeratosis and elongation of rete ridges with shortening of epidermal keratinocyte transit time due to decreased cyclic guanosine monophosphate.


  1. Secreting internally, most commonly into the systemic
    circulation; of or pertaining to such secretion.

  2. The internal or hormonal secretion of a ductless

  3. Denoting a gland that furnishes an internal

Cavernous space

an anatomic cavity with many interconnecting chambers


Inflammation of a joint or a state characterized by inflammation of the joints


White matter changes first described in children with leukemia, associated with radiation and chemotherapy injury, often associated with methotrexate; pathologically characterized by diffuse reactive astrocytosis with multiple areas of necrotic foci without inflammation.


Inactive; sluggish; painless or nearly so, said of a morbid process.


  1. A drug.
  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science
    concerned with disease in all its relations.

  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those
    affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually
    requiring surgical intervention.


  1. The quantity of a drug or other remedy to be taken or
    applied all at one time or in fractional amounts within a given period.

  2. nuclear medicine amount of energy absorbed per unit
    mass of irradiated material (absorbed dose).




  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.

  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.

Central nervous system (cns)

the brain and the spinal cord


Abbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid. For terms bearing this abbreviation, see subentries under deoxyribonucleic acid.


Relating to a neck, or cervix, in any sense


  1. Near or on the kidney; denoting the suprarenal
    (adrenal) gland.

  2. A suprarenal gland or separate tissue or product

Spinal cord

the elongated cylindric portion of the cerebrospinal axis, or central nervous system, which is contained in the spinal or vertebral canal


  1. The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body,
    containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.

  2. The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or
    rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.

  3. The rounded extremity of a bone.
  4. That end of a muscle that is attached to the less
    movable part of the skeleton


  1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen
    against a dark background.

  2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation
    (heat, light, x-rays).

  3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in
    the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.


Relating to the uterus.


The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


  1. A cell or organism that has received genes from
    different parental strains.

  2. Pertaining to or denoting such organisms.
  3. In linkage analysis, the change of coupling phase at
    two loci during meiosis. If two syntenic, nonallelic genes are inherited from
    the same parent, they must be in coupling. An offspring that inherits only one
    of them is recombinant and indicates an odd number of cross-overs between the
    loci; an offspring that inherits neither or both are nonrecombinant and may
    indicate an even number of cross-overs or none.


Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine


Possessing radioactivity


  1. Relating to or characteristic of a magnet.
  2. Possessing magnetism.


Making of a radiographic image of a selected plane by means of reciprocal linear or curved motion of the x-ray tube and film cassette; images of all other planes are blurred (out of focus) by being relatively displaced on the film


Relating to a cavern or a cavity; containing many cavities.


Abbreviation for magnetic resonance imaging.


Relating to a vertebra or the vertebrae.


Relating to respiration.


Relating to or covered with scales


  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.

  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


  1. A circumscribed flat area, up to 1 cm in diameter,
    differing perceptibly in color from the surrounding tissue.

  2. A small discolored patch or spot on the skin, neither
    elevated above nor depressed below the skin’s surface.

  3. The neuroepithelial sensory receptors of the utricle
    and saccule of the vestibular labyrinth collectively


  1. George M., U.S. bacteriologist, 18381915.
  2. See Sternberg
    cell, Sternberg-Reed cell, Reed-Sternberg cell


Relating to a nucleus, either cellular or atomic; in the latter sense, usually referring to radiation emanating from atomic nuclei or to atomic fission.


One of the paired organs that excrete urine, remove nitrogenous wastes of metabolism, reclaim important electrolytes and water, contribute to blood pressure control(renin-angiotensin system) and erythropoiesis (via erythropoietin production). The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about 11-cm long, 5-cm wide, and 3-cm thick, lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, opposite the 12th thoracic and 1st 3rd lumbar vertebrae. In animals, the kidney has variable size and location


A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


A substance that competes with, replaces, or antagonizes a particular metabolite; ethionine is an antimetabolite of methionine.

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