Cancer Tubal Ligatioligation

Cancer Tubal Ligatioligation

Cancer Tubal Ligatioligation

You will find no less than ten appropriate cancer items: cervical (i.e., cervicalis), brain, kidney (i.e., ren, or nephros), testicular, bone (i.e., os), throat (i.e., gullet), thyroid, gastrointestinal, endometrial occurs, and malignant cells. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone, cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Kidney, one of a dyad (i.e., diad) of organs in the abdomen (i.e., venter). The kidneys take away waste and extra water (i.e., aromatic water) from the blood (as urine) and help keep going chemicals (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) balanced in the body. The kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure and stimulate bone marrow to make redness blood cells. Cervical, relating to the neck (i.e., cervix (i.e., neck, or cervix of uterus), or collum), or to the neck of any organ or structure (i.e., structura). Cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck. Cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is the lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tube (i.e., tuba)rcle), narrow end (the neck ) of the uterus (i.e., metra, or womb (i.e., uterus)). Malignant, cancerous. Malignant cells can invade and destroy nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body. Gastrointestinal, refers to the stomach (i.e., gaster, or ventriculus) and intestines. Stomach is an organ that is part of the digestive (i.e., digestant) system. The stomach helps digest food by mixing it with digestive juices and churning it into a thin liquid. Also called GI. Throat is the hollow thermionic valve (i.e., valva) inside the neck that starts behind the nose (i.e., nasus) and ends at the top of the trachea (i.e., windpipe) (windpipe (i.e., trachea)) and esophagus (the tube that goes to the stomach). The throat is about 5 inches long, depending on body sizing. Also called throat. Thyroid is a gland (i.e., glandula) located beneath the voice (i.e., vox) box (voice box) that makes thyroid hormone and calcitonin (i.e., thyrocalcitonin). The thyroid helps regulate increment and metabolism. Likewise called thyroid secreter. Endometrial, having to do with the endometrium (i.e., tunica mucosa uteri) (the layer (i.e., panniculus) of tissue that lines the uterus). Endometrium is the level of tissue that lines the uterus. Uterus is the little, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s renal (i.e., nephric) pelvis (i.e., pelvis renalis, or ureteric pelvis). This is the organ in which a foetus develops. Likewise called womb.

If all of us additionally look at cervical cancer we are able to view (i.e., projection):

  1. It’s possible to recognize, complementary malignant neoplastic disease treatment or therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia) for breast (i.e., mamma, or teat) malignant neoplastic disease, lung (i.e., pulmo) cancer, prostate (i.e., prostata, or glandula prostatica) cancer, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver (i.e., hepar) cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer, cervical cancer, brain cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, bone cancer, throat cancer, thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, cancers of the bladder and gallbladder (i.e., vesica biliaris, or vesica fellea), metastatic melanoma (i.e., malignant melanoma (i.e., melanoma)), and cancers in animals including feline.[1] Testicular cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of one or both testicles. Testicular malignant neoplastic disease is most common in young or middle (i.e., medius)-aged men. Most testicular cancers start in microbe cells (cells that make sperm (i.e., sperm cell, or spermatozoon)) and are called testicular germ cell (i.e., sex cell) tumors. Therapy, treatment. Liver is a big organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood and aids (i.e., acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in digestion by secreting gall. Pancreatic, having to do with the pancreas. Ovarian, having to do with the ovaries, the female person reproductive glands in which the ova (eggs) are formed. The ovaries are located in the pelvic girdle (i.e., cingulum pelvici, or cingulum membri inferioris) (i.e., cingulum), one on each side of the uterus. Lung, one of a pair of organs in the chest (i.e., pectus) that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body. Colon cancer, cancer that forms in the tissues of the colon (the longest part of the large intestine (i.e., intestinum crassum)). Most colon cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in cells that make
    and release mucus and other fluids). Breast, glandular (i.e., glandulous) organ located on the chest. The breast is made up of connective tissue (i.e., interstitial tissue, or supporting tissue), fat, and breast tissue that contains the glands that can make milk (i.e., strip, or lac). Also called mammary gland (i.e., glandula mammaria, or lactiferous gland). Melanoma is a form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin (i.e., melanotic pigment)). It may begin in a mole (i.e., nevus, or nevus pigmentosus) (skin melanoma), but can also begin in other pigmented tissues, such as in the eye (i.e., oculus) or in the intestines. Cervical cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix (the organ connecting the uterus and vagina (i.e., sheath)). It is usually a slow-growing cancer that may not have symptoms but can be found with regular Pap tests (a procedure in which cells are scraped from the cervix and looked at under a microscope). Cervical cancer is almost always caused by human papillomavirus (i.e., papilloma virus) (Hpv) infection. Bone cancer, primary bone malignant neoplastic disease is cancer that forms in cells of the bone. Some types of primary bone malignant neoplastic disease are osteosarcoma (i.e., osteogenic sarcoma), Ewing sarcoma (i.e., ewing tumor), malignant fibrous (i.e., fibrosa) histiocytoma (i.e., dermatofibroma), and chondrosarcoma. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that spreads to the bone from another part of the organic structure (such as the prostate, breast, or lung). Bladder is the organ that stores urine. Throat cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the throat (the hollow tube inside the neck that starts behind the olfactory (i.e., osmatic, or osphretic) organ and ends at the top of the windpipe and esophagus). Throat cancer includes cancer of the nasopharynx (i.e., pars nasalis pharyngis, or epipharynx) (the upper part of the throat behind the olfactory organ (i.e., olfactory neuroepithelium)), the oropharynx (i.e., pars oralis pharyngis, or oral part of pharynx) (the middle part of the pharynx), and the hypopharynx (i.e., laryngopharynx) (the bottom part of the pharynx). Cancer of the larynx (voice box) may also be included as a type of pharynx cancer. Most throat cancers are squamous (i.e., scaly) cell carcinomas (cancer that begins in thin, flat cells that look like pisces the fishes scales). Likewise called pharyngeal (i.e., pharyngeus) malignant neoplastic disease. Prostate cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate (a gland in the male reproductive system (i.e., genital system) found below the bladder and in front of the rectum). Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men. Skin cancer, cancer that forms in the tissues of the skin. There are several types of skin cancer. Skin cancer that forms in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment) is called melanoma. Skin cancer that forms in the lower part of the epidermis (i.e., cuticle, or cuticula) (the outer layer of the skin) is called basal (i.e., basalis) cell (i.e., basilar cell) carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface (i.e., face, or facies) of the skin) is called squamous cell carcinoma. Skin cancer that forms in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system) is called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. Most skin cancers form in older people on parts of the body exposed to the sun or in people who have weakened immune systems. Stomach cancer, cancer that forms in tissues lining the abdomen. Likewise called gastric (i.e., gastricus) malignant neoplastic disease. Thyroid cancer, cancer that forms in the thyroid secretory organ (an organ at the base (i.e., basis, or basement) of the throat that makes hormones that help control heart (i.e., cor, or coeur) rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and weight). Four main types of thyroid cancer are papillose, follicular, medullary (i.e., medullar), and anaplastic thyroid cancer. The four types are based on how the malignant neoplastic disease cells look under a microscope. Gallbladder is the pear-shaped organ found below the liver. Gall is concentrated and stored in the gallbladder. Prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. The prostate surrounds the part of the urethra (the tube that empties the bladder) just below the bladder, and produces a fluid that forms part of the semen (i.e., seed, or seminal fluid). Kidney cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the kidneys. Kidney malignant neoplastic disease includes renal cell carcinoma (i.e., renal adenocarcinoma) (cancer that forms in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney that filter (i.e., filtrum) the blood and remove waste products) and renal renal pelvis carcinoma (cancer that forms in the center of the kidney where urine collects). It also includes Wilms tumor (i.e., nephroblastoma), which is a type of kidney cancer that usually develops in children under the age of five. Liver cancer, primary liver malignant neoplastic disease is cancer that forms in the tissues of the liver. Secondary liver malignant neoplastic disease is cancer that spreads to the liver from another part of the body. Colon is the longest part of the large intestine, which is a tube-like organ connected to the small intestine (i.e., intestinum tenue) at one end and the anus (i.e., anal orifice) at the other. The colon removes water and some nutrients and electrolytes from partially digested food. The remaining material, solid waste called stool (i.e., evacuation), moves through the colon to the rectum and leaves the body through the anus. Metastatic, having to do with metastasis (i.e., secondaries), which is the spread of cancer from the primary site (i.e., situs) (place where it started) to other places in the body. Ovarian cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary (i.e., ovarium, or female gonad) (one of a duo of female reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, are formed). Most ovarian malignant neoplastic diseases are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells). Lung cancer, cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small c
    (i.e., oat cell) lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These types are diagnosed based on how the cells look under a microscope. Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas. Also called exocrine (i.e., eccrine) cancer.

  2. It’s possible to determine, cervical malignant neoplastic disease treatment depends upon the level of cancer development.[2]

A few further facets of endometrial cancer occurs could be mentioned as follows:

  1. One can notice, endometrial cancer occurs when malignant cancer cells infest the inside lining of the uterus (endometrium) and begin to grow and spread.[2] Endometrial cancer, cancer that forms in the tissue lining the uterus (the small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman’s pelvis in which a fetus
    develops). Most endometrial cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancers that begin in
    cells that make and release mucus and other fluids).

  2. It looks that, endometrial cancer occurs when malignant cancer cells begin to grow and spread in the uterus.[2]

Moreover, we are able to make the following findings regarding Cancer Tubal Ligatioligation :

  • Apparently, therefore potassium, which transports glucose, can readily enter cancer cells, but Calcium, which transports oxygen, cannot.[1] Potassium is a metallic constituent that is important in body functions such as regulation of blood pressure and of water content in cells, transmission (i.e., transfer) of nerve (i.e., nervus) impulses, digestion, muscle contraction, and heartbeat. Glucose is a type of saccharide; the chief origin of energy for living organisms. Oxygen is a
    colorless, odorless gas. It is needed for animal and plant life. Oxygen that
    is breathed in enters the blood from the lungs and travels to the tissues.

  • Finally, as an example, brain cancer, kidney cancer, testicular cancer, bone cancer, throat cancer, thyroidal cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, cancers of the bladder and gallbladder, metastatic malignant melanoma, and cancers in animals including feline, canine (i.e., canine tooth), and equine cancer.[1]

In summary we could declare that Cancer Tubal Ligatioligation has an influence on cancer cervical, cancer brain, cancer kidney, cancer testicular, cancer bone, cancer throat, cancer thyroid, cancer gastrointestinal, and cancer endometrial.



  1. The sum of the chemical and physical changes
    occurring in tissue, consisting of anabolism (those reactions that convert
    small molecules into large), and catabolism (those reactions that convert
    large molecules into small), including both endogenous large molecules as well
    as biodegradation of xenobiotics.

  2. Often incorrectly used as a synonym for either
    anabolism or catabolism.


An organized aggregation of cells functioning as a secretory or excretory organ


Relating to, derived from, or resembling the horse, mule, ass, or other members of the genus Equus.

Mammary gland

the potential and active compound, alveolar, mostly merocrine (with possible apocrine components) milk-secreting gland lying within the breast; it comprises 15??????24 lobes, each consisting of many lobules, separated by adipose tissue and fibrous septa; the parenchyma of the resting postpubertal female gland consists of ducts; the alveoli develop only during pregnancy and remain active until weaning; normally, the gland remains rudimentary (undistinguishable from its childhood state) in men


A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


  1. A circumscribed malformation of the skin, especially
    if colored by hyperpigmentation or increased vascularity; a nevus may be
    predominantly epidermal, adnexal, melanocytic, vascular, or mesodermal, or a
    compound overgrowth of these tissues.

  2. A benign localized overgrowth of melanin-forming
    cells of the skin present at birth or appearing early in life


  1. A distensible musculomembranous organ serving as a
    receptacle for fluid, such as the urinary bladder or gallbladder.

  2. See detrusor


  1. The unborn young of a viviparous animal following the
    embryonic period.

  2. In humans, the product of conception from the end of
    the eighth week of gestation to the moment of birth.


Relating to the base of a pyramidal or broad structure.

Large intestine

the distal (aboral) portion of the digestive tube extending from the ileocecal valve to the anus; it comprises the cecum (with appendix), colon, rectum, and anal canal; shorter in length but larger in caliber than the small intestine, the large intestine functions to absorb fluids and electrolytes and provide temporary storage


A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


  1. Denoting glandular secretion delivered onto the body

  2. Denoting a gland that secretes outwardly through
    excretory ducts


  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.
  2. Relating to the vertebral column


A peptide hormone, of which eight forms in five species are known; composed of 32 amino acids and produced by the parathyroid, thyroid, and thymus glands; its action is opposite to that of parathyroid hormone in that calcitonin increases deposition of calcium and phosphate in bone and lowers the level of calcium in the blood; its level in the blood is increased by glucagon and by Ca2+ and thus opposes postprandial hypercalcemia

Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


Relating to reproduction.


Denoting fat.


Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


A chestnut-shaped body, surrounding the beginning of the urethra in the male, which consists of two lateral lobes connected anteriorly by an isthmus and posteriorly by a middle lobe lying above and between the ejaculatory ducts. Structurally, the prostate consists of 30??????50 compound tubuloalveolar glands among which is abundant stroma consisting of collagen and elastic fibers and many smooth muscle bundles. The secretion of the glands is a milky fluid that is discharged by excretory ducts into the prostatic urethra at the time of the emission of semen


A tumor composed of histiocytes.

Small cell

a short, bluntly spindle-shaped cell that contains a relatively large, hyperchromatic nucleus, frequently observed in some forms of undifferentiated bronchogenic carcinoma


Prominent part of wasp or ant abdomen, separated from the other body parts by a thin connecting segment


The large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum.

Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.


Relating to a gland


A belt; a zone. Any structure that has the form of a belt or girdle


Relating to the ovary.


The organ of voice production; the part of the respiratory tract between the pharynx and the trachea; it consists of a framework of cartilages and elastic membranes housing the vocal folds and the muscles that control the position and tension of these elements.


The part of the pharynx lying below the aperture of the larynx and behind the larynx; it extends from the vestibule of the larynx to the esophagus at the level of the inferior border of the cricoid cartilage


  1. Relating to reproduction or generation.
  2. Relating to the primary female or male sex organs or

  3. Relating to or characterized by genitality.


Epithelial cells specialized for the reception of external stimuli. Most neuroepithelial cells, notably the hair cells of the inner ear and the receptor cells of the taste buds, are not true neurons but transducer cells that stand in synaptic contact with the peripheral endings of sensory ganglion cells. The neuroepithelial receptor cells of the olfactory epithelium, by contrast, are true peripheral neurons with extremely thin, unmyelinated axons that compose the olfactory filaments that enter the olfactory bulb of the cerebral hemisphere. The NA also applies the term to the rods and cones of the retina

Squamous cell carcinoma

a malignant neoplasm derived from stratified squamous epithelium, but that may also occur in sites such as bronchial mucosa where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present; variable amounts of keratin are formed, in relationship to the degree of differentiation, and, if the keratin is not on the surface, it may accumulate in the neoplasm as a keratin pearl; in instances in which the cells are well differentiated, intercellular bridges may be observed between adjacent cells.


  1. An intrauterine mass formed by the degeneration of
    the partly developed products of conception.

  2. In the SI, the unit of amount of substance, defined as that amount of a substance containing as many ??????elementary entities?????? as there are atoms in 0.0120 kg of carbon-12; ??????elementary entities?????? may be atoms, molecules, ions, or any describable entity or defined mixture of entities and must be specified when this term is used; in practical terms, the mole is 6.0221367 ???? 1023 ??????elementary entities.??????
  3. Synonyms nevus2,
    nevus pigmentosus


  1. Any enveloping structure, such as the membranous
    covering of a muscle, nerve, or blood vessel. Any sheathlike structure.

  2. The prepuce of male animals, especially of the

  3. A specially designed tubular instrument through which
    special obturators or cutting instruments can be passed, or through which
    blood clots, tissue fragments, and calculi can be evacuated.

  4. A tube used as an orthodontic appliance, usually on


A whitish cordlike structure composed of one or more bundles (fascicles) of myelinated or unmyelinated nerve fibers, or more often mixtures of both, coursing outside the central nervous system, together with connective tissue within the fascicle and around the neurolemma of individual nerve fibers (endoneurium), around each fascicle (perineurium), and around the entire nerve and its nourishing blood vessels (epineurium), by which stimuli are transmitted from the central nervous system to a part of the body or the reverse. Nerve branches are given in the definition of the major nerve; many are also listed and defined under branch

Cervix of uterus

the lower part of the uterus extending from the isthmus of the uterus into the vagina. It is divided into supravaginal and vaginal parts by its passage through the vaginal wall

Neuroendocrine carcinoma

tumor originating in neuroendocrine cells; most common in the lung, but may occur in any organ.


  1. The fauces and pharynx.
  2. The anterior aspect of the neck.
  3. Any narrowed entrance into a hollow part


Relating to digestion

Nevus pigmentosus

a benign pigmented melanocytic proliferation; raised or level with the skin, present at birth or arising early in life


Relating to the pancreas.


That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


  1. Situated nearer the base of a pyramidal organ in
    relation to a specific reference point; opposite of apical.

  2. In dentistry, denoting the floor of a cavity in the
    grinding surface of a tooth.

  3. Denoting a standard or reference state of a function,
    as a basis for comparison. More specifically, denoting the exact conditions
    for measurement of basal metabolic rate (q.v.); basal conditions do not always
    denote a minimum value, metabolic rate in sleep is usually lower than the
    basal rate but is inconvenient for standard measurement


The hollow muscular organ in which the ootid is developed into the embryo and fetus; it is about 7.5-cm long in a nonpregnant woman; consists of a main portion (body) with an elongated lower part (cervix), at the extremity of which is the opening (external os). The upper rounded portion of the uterus, opposite the os, is the fundus, at each extremity of which is the horn marking the part where the uterine tube joins the uterus and through which the morula reaches the uterine cavity after leaving the uterine tube. The organ is passively supported in the pelvic cavity by the vagina and paracolpium and by the anteflexion and anteversion of the normal uterus, which places its mass superior to the bladder; it is actively supported by the tonic and phasic contraction of the muscles of the pelvic floor


  1. The shifting of a disease or its local
    manifestations, from one part of the body to another, as in mumps when the
    symptoms referable to the parotid gland subside and the testis becomes

  2. The spread of a disease process from one part of the
    body to another, as in the appearance of neoplasms in parts of the body remote
    from the site of the primary tumor; results from dissemination of tumor cells
    by the lymphatics or blood vessels or by direct extension through serous
    cavities or subarachnoid or other spaces.

  3. Transportation of bacteria from one part of the body
    to another, through the bloodstream (hematogenous metastasis) or through lymph
    channels (lymphogenous metastasis)


Any hollow structure or sac, normal or pathologic, containing a serous fluid


Relating to metastasis.


  1. Aiding digestion.
  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of


Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part

Canine tooth

a tooth having a crown of thick conic shape and a long, slightly flattened conic root; there are two canine teeth in each jaw, one on either side adjacent to the distal surface of the lateral incisors, in both the deciduous and the permanent dentition


One of the paired female reproductive glands containing the oocytes or germ cells; the ovaries stroma is a vascular connective tissue containing numbers of ovarian follicles enclosing the oocytes; surrounding this stroma is a more condensed layer of stroma called the tunica albuginea


  1. Max, German surgeon, 1867??????1918.
  2. See Wilms


A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


Relating to or composed of endometrium.


  1. Relating to semen.
  2. Original or influential of future developments.


The mucous membrane comprising the inner layer of the uterine wall; it consists of a simple columnar epithelium and a lamina propria that contains simple tubular uterine glands. The structure, thickness, and state of the endometrium undergo marked change with the menstrual cycle. The blastocyst implants into the endometrium making the uterus gravid. If implantation does not occur, the superficial part of the endometrium is shed during the (hemorrhagic) menstrual phase of the uterine cycle


Invasion of the body with organisms that have the potential to cause disease.


The aggregate of symptoms and signs associated with any morbid process, together constituting the picture of the disease.


Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes


The terminal portion of the digestive tube, extending from the rectosigmoid junction to the anal canal (perineal flexure).


  1. Relating to anaplasty.
  2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia.
  3. Growing without form or structure.


The air tube extending from the larynx into the thorax to the level of the fifth or sixth thoracic vertebra where it bifurcates into the right and left bronchi. The trachea is composed of 16??????20 incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage connected by a membrane (anular ligament); posteriorly, the rings are deficient for one fifth to one third of their circumference, the interval forming the membranous wall being closed by a fibrous membrane containing smooth muscular fibers. Internally, the mucosa is composed of a pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with mucous goblet cells; numerous small mixed mucous and serous glands occur, the ducts of which open to the surface of the epithelium


  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the
    trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.

  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied
    resemblance to the neck of an animal.

  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that
    develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation
    behind the scolex


The part of the pharynx that lies above the soft palate; anteriorly it opens into the nasal cavities through the choanae; inferiorly, it communicates with the oropharynx through the pharyngeal isthmus; laterally it communicates with tympanic cavities through pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes


Any necklike structure


  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic
    tissues of the bone marrow.

  2. A plasma cell tumor.


Relating to or consisting of epithelium.


The part of the genital canal in the female, extending between the cervix of the uterus and the vestibule; it is an organ of copulation that receives the penis during sexual intercourse


Any of the dark brown to black polymers of indole-5,6-quinone and/or 5,6-dihydroxyindole 2-carboxylic acid that normally occur in the skin, hair, pigmented coat of the retina, and inconstantly in the medulla and zona reticularis of the adrenal gland. Melanin may be formed in vitro or biologically by oxidation of l-tyrosine or l-tryptophan, the usual mechanism being the enzymatic oxidation of l-tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (dopa) and dopaquinone by monophenol monooxygenase, and the further oxidation (probably spontaneous) of this intermediate to melanin


The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male, exhibits autokinesia, and is able to effect zygosis with an oocyte. The human sperm is composed of a head and a tail, the tail being divisible into a neck, a middle piece, a principal piece, and an end piece; the head, 4??????6 mcm in length, is a broadly oval, flattened body containing the nucleus; the tail is about 55 mcm in length

Sex cell

a sperm or an oocyte


Pertaining to or characterized by neoplasia, or containing a neoplasm.


Relating to the breasts.


  1. Pertaining to the anatomic and functional
    relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine apparatus.

  2. Descriptive of cells that release a hormone into the
    circulating blood in response to a neural stimulus. Such cells may compose a
    peripheral endocrine gland (the insulin-secreting ???? cells of the islets of
    Langerhans in the pancreas and the adrenaline-secreting chromaffin cells of
    the adrenal medulla); others are neurons in the brain ( the neurons of the
    supraoptic nucleus that release antidiuretic hormone from their axon terminals
    in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis).


A genus of viruses (family Papovaviridae) containing double-stranded circular DNA (MW 5 ???? 106), having virions about 55 nm in diameter, and including the papilloma and wart viruses of humans and other animals, some of which are associated with induction of carcinoma. More than 70 types are known to infect humans and are differentiated by DNA homology


Relating to the stomach


  1. An outer thin layer, usually horny.
  2. The layer, chitinous in some invertebrates, which
    occurs on the surface of epithelial cells


  1. The superficial epithelial portion of the skin
    (cutis). The thick epidermis of the palms and soles contains the following
    strata, from the surface stratum corneum (keratin layer), stratum lucidum
    (clear layer), stratum granulosum (granular layer), stratum spinosum (prickle
    cell layer), and stratum basale (basal cell layer); in other parts of the
    body, the stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum may be absent.

  2. In botany, the outermost layer of cells in leaves and
    the young parts of plants


Any minute organism. As originated, the word was intended as a collective term for the large variety of microorganisms then known in the 19th century; modern usage has retained the original collective meaning but expanded it to include both microscopic and ultramicroscopic organisms (spirochetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, and viruses). These organisms are considered to form a biologically distinctive group, in that the genetic material is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane, and mitosis does not occur during replication.


  1. Resembling a shield; denoting a gland (thyroid gland)
    and a cartilage of the larynx (thyroid cartilage) having such a shape.

  2. The cleaned, dried, and powdered thyroid gland
    obtained from one of the domesticated animals used for food and containing
    0.17??????0.23% of iodine; formerly widely used in the treatment of
    hypothyroidism, cretinism, and myxedema, in some cases of obesity, and in skin


  1. One of the great cavities of the body.
  2. The uterus


The part of the trunk that lies between the thorax and the pelvis. The abdomen does not include the vertebral region posteriorly but is considered by some anatomists to include the pelvis (abdominopelvic cavity). It includes the greater part of the abdominal cavity (cavitas abdominis [TA]) and is divided by arbitrary planes into nine regions

Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location

Small intestine

the portion of the digestive tube between the stomach and the cecum (beginning of the large intestine); it consists of three portions duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; its primary function is the continued digestion of chyme and the absorption of nutrients into the lymphatic (fats) and portal venous system, through its mucosal surface, which is highly modified to provide surface area for this purpose


The property or condition of being malignant.


A pear-shaped organ on the inferior surface of the liver, in a hollow between the right lobe and the quadrate lobe; it serves as a storage reservoir for bile


A condition resulting from a defective immune mechanism; may be primary (due to a defect in the immune mechanism itself) or secondary (dependent on another disease process), specific (due to a defect in either the B-lymphocyte or the T-lymphocyte system, or both) or nonspecific (due to a defect in one or another component of the nonspecific immune mechanism the complement, properdin, or phagocytic system)


  1. Pertaining to the presence, normal or pathologic, of

  2. Relating to or characterized by melanosis.


A well-marked fiber bundle passing longitudinally in the white matter of the cingulate gyrus; the bundle extends from the region of the anterior perforated substance back over the superior surface of the corpus callosum; behind the latter’s splenium it curves down and then forward in the white matter of the parahippocampal gyrus; largely composed of fibers from the anterior thalamic nucleus to the cingulate and parahippocampal gyri, it also contains association fibers connecting these gyri with the frontal cortex, and their various subdivisions with each other

Ewing tumor

a malignant neoplasm which occurs usually before the age of 20 years, about twice as frequently in males, and in about 75% of patients involves bones of the extremities, including the shoulder girdle, with a predilection for the metaphysis; histologically, there are conspicuous foci of necrosis in association with irregular masses of small, regular, rounded, or ovoid cells (2??????3 times the diameter of erythrocytes), with very scanty cytoplasm


Relating to secretion or the secretions.


Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


  1. A microbe; a microorganism.
  2. A primordium; the earliest trace of a structure
    within an embryo.


  1. Relating to a dog.
  2. Relating to the canine teeth.
  3. Referring to the cuspid tooth


The enlarged posterior portion of the mesenteron of the insect alimentary canal, in which digestion occurs


Relating to the anus.


The lower opening of the digestive tract. It is associated with the anal sphincter and lies in the cleft between the buttocks, through which fecal matter is extruded


A superclass of vertebrates, generally known as fish; the term is sometimes confined to the bony fishes.


  1. James, U.S. pathologist, 1866??????1943.
  2. See Ewing
    sarcoma, Ewing tumor


Relating to or pertaining to a malignant neoplasm, or being afflicted with such a process.


The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.


A malignant neoplasm, derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, arising most commonly in the skin of any part of the body, or in the eye, and, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites; occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or lentigo maligna. In the early phases, the cutaneous form is characterized by proliferation of cells at the dermal-epidermal junction, that soon invade adjacent tissues. The cells vary in amount and pigmentation of cytoplasm; the nuclei are relatively large and frequently bizarre in shape, with prominent acidophilic nucleoli; mitotic figures tend to be numerous. Prognosis correlates with the depth of skin invasion. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely; regional lymph nodes, skin, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. Intense, intermittent sun exposure, especially of fair-skinned children, increases the risk of melanoma later in life


  1. A fold of the lining membrane of a canal or other
    hollow organ that serves to retard or prevent a reflux of fluid.

  2. Any formation or reduplication of tissue, or flaplike
    structure, resembling or functioning as a valve


The portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth; it is continuous above with the nasopharynx via the pharyngeal isthmus and below with the laryngopharynx

Renal adenocarcinoma

an adenocarcinoma arising in the renal parenchyma, usually occurring in middle-aged or older people of either gender (although more common in men)


Pertaining or relating to cats.


The largest gland of the body, lying beneath the diaphragm in the right hypochondrium and upper part of the epigastric region; it is of irregular shape and weighs from 1??????2 kg, or about one fortieth the weight of the body. As an exocrine gland, it secretes bile; it initially receives most absorbed nutrients through the portal vein; it detoxifies drugs and many exogeneous substances and is also of great importance in fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism; also stores glycogen


Any aperture or opening


Relating to the sense of smell


Relating to the medulla or marrow


  1. Any coloring matter, such as that in the red blood
    cells, hair, or iris, or in the stains used in histologic or bacteriologic
    work, or that in paint.

  2. A medicinal preparation for external use, applied to
    the skin like paint, or coloring agents used in paints.

Renal pelvis

a flattened funnel-shaped expansion of the upper end of the ureter receiving the calices, the apex being continuous with the ureter

Osteogenic sarcoma

the most common and malignant of bone sarcomas, which arises from bone-forming cells and affects chiefly the ends of long bones; its greatest incidence is in the age group between 10 and 25 years


  1. occurring in severe form, and frequently fatal;
    tending to become worse and leading to an ingravescent course.

  2. In reference to a neoplasm, having the property of
    locally invasive and destructive growth and metastasis.


An organ that produces sex cells; a testis or an ovary.


Abbreviation for human papillomavirus.


  1. The organ of vision that consists of the eyeball and
    the optic nerve;

  2. The area of the eye, including lids and other
    accessory organs of the eye; the contents of the orbit (common)


One of a pair of viscera occupying the pulmonary cavities of the thorax, the organs of respiration in which blood is aerated. In humans, the right lung is slightly larger than the left and is divided into three lobes (an upper, a middle, and a lower or basal), whereas the left has but two lobes (an upper and a lower or basal). Each lung is irregularly conic, presenting a blunt upper extremity (the apex), a concave base following the curve of the diaphragm, an outer convex surface (costal surface), a generally concave inner or medial surface (mediastinal surface), a thin and sharp anterior border, and a rounded posterior border


Relating to a tube, especially the uterine tube.


Relating to a neck, or cervix, in any sense


A single complete cycle of contraction and dilation of heart muscle.


  1. Relating to spaces or interstices in any

  2. Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but
    excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.


The transverse tubule and a terminal cisterna in cardiac muscle fibers


  1. Acronym for peroxidase antiperoxidase complex.
    Abbreviation for 3??????-phosphoadenosine 5??????-phosphate.

  2. See PAP


Relating to the testes.


Inward; inner


Relating to the uterus.


The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


A mucous tissue lining various tubular structures consisting of epithelium, lamina propria, and, in the digestive tract, a layer of smooth muscle (muscularis mucosae)


An elongated lobulated retroperitoneal gland, devoid of a distinct capsule, extending from the concavity of the duodenum to the spleen; it consists of a flattened head within the duodenal concavity, a neck connecting the head and body, an elongated three-sided body extending transversely across the abdomen, and a tail in contact with the spleen. The gland secretes from its exocrine part pancreatic juice that is discharged into the intestine, and from its endocrine part the internal secretions insulin and glucagon.


Relating to the pharynx


Any whitish, milklike liquid


Relating to the pelvis.


  1. The massive cup-shaped ring of bone, with its
    ligaments, at the inferior end of the trunk, formed of the hip bone (the pubic
    bone, ilium, and ischium) on either side and in front of the sacrum and
    coccyx, posteriorly.

  2. Any basinlike or cup-shaped cavity, such as the
    pelvis of the kidney.


Relating to a follicle or follicles.


The portion of the alimentary canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25-cm long and consists of three parts the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; the thoracic part, from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and the abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.


  1. Any substance that is either a simple sugar (aldose
    or ketose) or a compound of such substances in glycosidic linkage to each
    other. Saccharides are classified as mono-, di-, tri-, and polysaccharides
    according to the number of monosaccharide groups composing them.

  2. See carbohydrates


A malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and older people; most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion.


Relating to or covered with scales


Containing, consisting or resembling fibers; the portion of a bilaminar membrane that provides strength due to its collagen fiber content (the other portion being serous)


  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.
  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or
    emotional instability; tense or anxious.

  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by
    excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often
    volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


The clear viscid secretion of the mucous membranes, consisting of mucin, epithelial cells, leukocytes, and various inorganic salts dissolved in water.


Yielding milk.


Colored as the result of a deposit of pigment.


The canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.


Denoting the flow of sweat from skin glands unconnected to hair follicles


A slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries, with scattered hemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages. The following terms are considered by some to be synonymous with, and by others to be varieties of, dermatofibroma sclerosing hemangioma (2), fibrous histiocytoma, nodular subepidermal fibrosis


A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


One of the paired organs that excrete urine, remove nitrogenous wastes of metabolism, reclaim important electrolytes and water, contribute to blood pressure control(renin-angiotensin system) and erythropoiesis (via erythropoietin production). The kidneys are bean-shaped organs about 11-cm long, 5-cm wide, and 3-cm thick, lying on either side of the vertebral column, posterior to the peritoneum, opposite the 12th thoracic and 1st 3rd lumbar vertebrae. In animals, the kidney has variable size and location


Relating to the kidney


  1. A pair.
  2. In chemistry, a bivalent element, molecule, or

  3. Two people in an interactional situation, patient and
    therapist, husband and wife.

  4. The double chromosome resulting from division in

  5. Two units treated as one.
  6. A pair of cells resulting from the first meitotic

  7. The transverse tubule and a terminal cisterna in
    cardiac muscle cells

Connective tissue

the physical or functional supporting tissue of the animal body, a major constituent of which (in addition to various kinds of cells) is an extracellular matrix of ground substance, protein fibers, and structural glycoproteins; it is derived from the mesenchyme, which in turn is derived mainly from mesoderm; the many kinds of connective tissue may be classified according to cell-matrix proportion (loose vs. dense), arrangement of fibers (regular dense vs. irregular dense), fiber type (collagenous, elastic), embedded cell type (adipose, lymphoid, hemopoietic), degree of differentiation (mesenchymal, mucous), location (subcutaneous, periosteal, perichondrial), appearance (areolar, granulation), or nature of matrix (cartilaginous, osseous, or, in the cases of blood and lymph, liquid)


A hollow muscular organ that receives the blood from the veins and propels it into the arteries. In mammals it is divided by a musculomembranous septum into two halves??????right or venous and left or arterial??????each of which consists of a receiving chamber (atrium) and an ejecting chamber (ventricle)


A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


Relating to osteogenesis

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