Cancer Use Topical Pain Therapy

Cancer Use Topical Pain Therapy

Cancer Use Topical Pain Therapy (i.e., therapeusis, or therapia)

With respect to oral we could identify mucositis, and relief mucositis pain as being crucial. Oral, by or having to do with the mouth (i.e., oral cavity, or ostium). Mucositis is a complication of some cancer therapies in which the lining of the digestive (i.e., digestant) system (i.e., systema) becomes inflamed. Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal (i.e., deviant) cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues. Cancer cells can also spread to other parts of the body (i.e., corpus) through the blood (i.e., haema) and lymph (i.e., lympha) systems. There are several main (i.e., hand) types of cancer. Carcinoma is a cancer that begins in the skin (i.e., cutis) or in tissues that line (i.e., linea) or cover internal (i.e., internus) organs. Sarcoma is a cancer that begins in bone (i.e., os), cartilage (i.e., cartilago, or chondrus), fat (i.e., adipose tissue), muscle (i.e., musculus, or see musculus), blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. Leukemia (i.e., leukocytic sarcoma) is a cancer that starts in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow (i.e., medulla ossium), and causes large numbers of abnormal blood cells to be produced and enter the blood. Lymphoma and multiple myeloma (i.e., multiple myelomatosis, or myelomatosis multiplex) are cancers that begin in the cells of the immune system. Central nervous system (i.e., systema nervosum) cancers are cancers that begin in the tissues of the brain and spinal (i.e., rachial, or rachidial) cord (i.e., fasciculus, or funiculus). Also called malignancy. Often seen as sores in the mouth. The particular impact associated with muco in oral, pain, and relief oral pain is definitely substantial. If all of us think about pain, than we can declare that mucositis, and relief oral mucositis is of high relevance.

The following four items, tend to be oral mucositis appropriate:

  1. It seems to be, oral capsaicin provides temporary relief for oral mucositis pain secondary to chemotherapy/radiation (i.e., radiatio) therapy.[1] Therapy, treatment. Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy radiation from x-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, protons, and other sources to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Radiation may come from a machine outside the body (external (i.e., externus)-beam radiation therapy), or it may come from radioactive (i.e., radio-) material placed in the body near cancer cells (internal radiation therapy). Systemic radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance (i.e., substantia, or matter), such as a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, that travels in the blood to tissues throughout the body. Also called irradiation and radiotherapy (i.e., radiation oncology). Chemotherapy, treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells. Capsaicin is a component of certain plants, including cayenne and red peppercorn, used topically for peripheral (i.e., peripheralis, or eccentric) nerve (i.e., nervus) pain. Topical, on the control surface (i.e., face, or facies) of the body. It is also being studied for controlling mucositis pain after chemotherapy and irradiation therapy. Radiation, energy released in the form of particle or electromagnetic waves. Common sources of radiation include radon gas, cosmic rays from outer space (i.e., spatium), medical (i.e., medicinal, or medicinal) x-rays, and energy given off by a radioisotope (unstable form of a chemical element that releases radiation as it breaks down and becomes more stable).

  2. It looks that, topical fentanyl prepared as lozenges administered in a randomized placebo (i.e., active placebo)-controlled study showed relief of oral mucositis pain.[1] Placebo is an inactive substance or treatment that looks the same as, and is given the same way as, an active drug or treatment being tested. The effects of the active drug or treatment are compared to the effects of the placebo. Placebo-controlled, refers to a clinical report in which the control patients receive a placebo. Controlled study is an experimentation or clinical tribulation that includes a comparison (control) group.

  3. One can notice, oral mucositis and associated pain are the most distressing symptoms reported by patients receiving head (i.e., caput) and neck (i.e., cervix, or collum) opening radioactivity therapy and aggressive neutropenia (i.e., neutrophilic leukopenia, or neutrophilopenia)-inducing chemotherapy regimens.[1] Neutropenia is a condition in which there is a lower (i.e., inferior, or lower tubercle) berth-than-normal number of neutrophils (a type of white (i.e., albicans) blood cell). Blood is a tissue with red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and other substances suspended in fluid called plasma (i.e., blood plasma). Blood takes oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and carries away wastes. Aggressive is in medicine, describes a tumor or disease that forms, grows, or spreads cursorily. It may likewise describe treatment that is more severe or intense than usual.

  4. It’s been discovered that, topical benzydamine (not available in the United States), an anti-inflammatory and analgesic (i.e., analgetic)/anesthetic agent, has been shown in randomized controlled studies to reduce pain in oral mucositis and reduce the need for systemic analgesics.[1] Inflammatory, having to do with inflammation (redness, swelling, pain, and a feeling of heat that helps protect tissues affected by injury or disease). Systemic, affecting the entire body. Benzydamine is a substance being studied as a mouth rinsing handling for oral mucositis (painful mouth sores) caused by cancer therapy. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug). Anti-inflammatory, having to perform with reducing redness. Analgesic is a drug that reduces pain. Analgesics include aspirin (i.e., acetylsalicylic acid), acetaminophen, and ibuprofen.

The significance of mucositis pain will be additionally displayed through:

  1. You can conclude that, topical approaches for mucosal pain sensation ease.[1]

  2. Evidently, topical anesthetics take a limited duration of effect in mucositis pain (1530 minutes), may sting with application on damaged mucosa, and affect taste and the gag reflex (i.e., faucial reflex).[1]

Moreover, we are able to make the pursuing observations for Cancer Use Topical Pain Therapy :

  • One can determine, addiction in opioid therapy is not generally a concern for cancer patients; the focus should be on escalating to stronger opioids as needed (based on assessment) and using adjuvant approaches to provide adequate pain relief.[1] Opioid is a substance used to treat moderate to severe pain. Opioids are like opiates, such as morphine and codeine (i.e., methylmorphine), but are not made from opium (i.e., gum opium, or meconium). Opioids bind to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Opioids used to be called narcotics. An opioid is a type of alkaloid (i.e., vegetable base). Assessment is in healthcare, a process (i.e., processus) used to learn about a patient’s condition. This may include a complete medical history, medical tests, a physical exam, a test of learning skills, tests to find out if the patient is able to carry out the tasks of daily living, a mental (i.e., genial, or genian) health evaluation, and a review of social support and community resources available to the patient. Addiction, uncontrollable craving, seeking, and use of a substance such as a drug or alcohol (i.e., ethyl alcohol, or grain alcohol).

  • Apparently, topical coating agents may reduce pain in mucositis.[1]

  • For instance, pain due to oral mucositis is the most frequently reported patient-related complaint during cancer therapy.[1]

  • For instance, amitriptyline in neuropathic cancer pain sensation in patients on morphine therapy a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind (i.e., masked) crossover study.[1] Amitriptyline is a drug that is used to care for clinical depression (i.e., major depression) (i.e., excavation, or dejection) and may be given to treat anxiety, sleep disorders, and pain. It is as well being studied in an oral or gelatin form in the treatment of nerve pain caused by chemotherapy. Amitriptyline is a type of tricyclic antidepressant. As well called amitriptyline hydrochloride.

  • You can view, exercise of effectual topical pain therapy with the initial mucosal injury may allow for reduced duration or reduced doses of systemic medications.[1]

  • One can recognize, more than one non-drug pain sensation therapy can be used at any one time.[2]

  • One can recognize, the best management of pain is aggressive therapy with constant assessment.[2]

  • One can notice, another mood to assist with pain management is external beam radiation therapy.[2]

  • It seems that, the Pca (Personal Care Assistant (PCA)) proficiency allows for rapid, individual administration of painfulness medication by means of a programmable portable pump.[2] Administration is in medicine, the act of giving a treatment, such as a drug, to a patient. It can also refer to the way it is given, the dose, or how often it is given. Pump is a device that is used to give a controlled amount of a liquidity at a specific rate. For exemplar, pumps are used to give drugs (such as chemotherapy or pain medicine) or nutrients. PCA is a method of painfulness relief in which the patient controls the amount of pain medicine that is used. When pain relief is needed, the person can receive a preset dose of pain medicine by pressing a button on a computerized pump that is connected to a small tubing in the body. As well called patient-controlled analgesia.

  • It’s been found that, there can be side effects of the various hurtingfulness medications and other pain management therapies.[2]

  • It looks that, dmso is commonly used as a topical application to the skin.[3]

  • For instance, dMSO is especially effective with brain cancer patients because of how quickly it gets past the blood-brain barrier, but it can be used productively with any type of cancer.[3] Blood-brain barrier is a network (i.e., net, or rete) of blood vessels and tissue that is made up of closely spaced cells and helps hold harmful substances from reaching the encephalon. The blood-encephalon barrier lets some substances, such as water (i.e., aromatic water), oxygen, carbon dioxide, and general anesthetics, pass into the brain. It likewise keeps out bacteria and other substances, such as many anticancer drugs. As well called Bbb. Barrier, something that blocks, prevents, separates, or limits.

  • Finally, one can believe that, there was a medical physician in Georgia who had a cancer clinic that used DMSO and chemotherapy.[3]

It should be pointed out that with regard to Cancer Use Topical Pain Therapy, oral mucositis has a large degree of relevancy.



A clear, transparent, sometimes faintly yellow and slightly opalescent fluid that is collected from the tissues throughout the body, flows in the lymphatic vessels (through the lymph nodes), and is eventually added to the venous blood circulation. Lymph consists of a clear liquid portion, varying numbers of white blood cells (chiefly lymphocytes), and a few red blood cells


A fundamental pathologic process consisting of a dynamic complex of histologically apparent cytologic changes, cellular infiltration, and mediator release that occurs in the affected blood vessels and adjacent tissues in response to an injury or abnormal stimulation caused by a physical, chemical, or biologic agent, including the local reactions and resulting morphologic changes; the destruction or removal of the injurious material; and the responses that lead to repair and healing. The so-called cardinal signs of inflammation are rubor, redness; calor, heat (or warmth); tumor, swelling; and dolor, pain; a fifth sign, functio laesa, inhibited or lost function, is sometimes added. All these signs may be observed in certain instances, but none is necessarily always present.


Refers to the phenomenon of sound presented to one ear being perceived in the other ear by passing around the head by air conduction or through the head by bone conduction.


A widely used analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinflammatory agent; also used as an antiplatelet agent. Although a generic in the U.S., aspirin remains a proprietary name in other countries


A disease characterized by the occurrence of myeloma in various sites.


  1. Relating to any spine or spinous process.

  2. Relating to the vertebral column

Nervous system

the entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part (the brain and spinal cord) and a peripheral part (the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, plexuses and peripheral nerves)


That portion of the cerebrospinal axis contained within the cranium, composed of the prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon.


Denoting fat.


Pertaining to or characterized by leukocytes


  1. Abnormal or peculiar in ideas or behavior.

  2. Proceeding from a center


Alkaloid obtained from opium, which contains 0.7??????2.5%, but usually made from morphine. Used as an analgesic and antitussive; drug dependence (physical and psychic) may develop, but codeine is less liable to produce addiction than morphine; codeine is biotransformed to morphine, which accounts for most of codeine’s effects

Immune system

an intricate complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components that provides a defense, the immune response, against foreign organisms or substances and aberrant native cells.

Tricyclic antidepressant

a chemical group of antidepressant drugs that share a three-ringed nucleus.


  1. A nodule, especially in an anatomic, not pathologic, sense.

  2. A circumscribed, rounded, solid elevation on the skin, mucous membrane, surface of an organ, or the surface of a bone, the latter giving attachment to a muscle or ligament.

  3. dentistry a small elevation arising on the surface of a tooth.

  4. A granulomatous lesion due to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although somewhat variable in size (0.5??????3 mm in diameter) and in the proportions of various histologic components, tubercle’s tend to be fairly well circumscribed, spheroid, firm lesions that usually consist of three irregularly outlined but moderately distinct zones 1) an inner focus of necrosis, coagulative at first, which then becomes caseous; 2) a middle zone that consists of a fairly dense accumulation of large mononuclear phagocytes (macrophages), frequently arranged somewhat radially (with reference to the necrotic material) resembling an epithelium, and hence termed epithelioid cells; multinucleated giant cells of Langhans type may also be present; and 3) an outer zone of numerous lymphocytes, and a few monocytes and plasma cells. In instances in which healing has begun, a fourth zone of fibrous tissue may form at the periphery. Morphologically indistinguishable lesions may occur in diseases caused by other agents; many observers use the term nonspecifically, with reference to any such granuloma; other clinicians use tubercle only for tuberculous lesions, and then designate those of undetermined causes as epithelioid-cell granulomas


A structure composed of a fibrous network or mesh


  1. A compound capable of producing analgesia, one that relieves pain by altering the perception of nociceptive stimuli without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness.

  2. Characterized by reduced response to painful stimuli


A neurologic or pharmacologic state in which painful stimuli are moderated such that, although still perceived, they are no longer painful.


Associated with decreased pain perception


  1. Pertaining to or characterized by neutrophils, such as an exudate in which the predominant cells are neutrophilic granulocytes.

  2. Characterized by a lack of affinity for acid or basic dyes, staining approximately equally with either type


Inflammation of a mucous membrane.


A whitish cordlike structure composed of one or more bundles (fascicles) of myelinated or unmyelinated nerve fibers, or more often mixtures of both, coursing outside the central nervous system, together with connective tissue within the fascicle and around the neurolemma of individual nerve fibers (endoneurium), around each fascicle (perineurium), and around the entire nerve and its nourishing blood vessels (epineurium), by which stimuli are transmitted from the central nervous system to a part of the body or the reverse. Nerve branches are given in the definition of the major nerve; many are also listed and defined under branch


Pertaining to, characterized by, causing, resulting from, or becoming affected by inflammation.


  1. Reduction of the level of functioning.

  2. Displacement of a part downward or inward.

  3. A mental state or chronic mental disorder characterized by feelings of sadness, loneliness, despair, low self-esteem, and self-reproach; accompanying signs include psychomotor retardation (or less frequently agitation), withdrawal from social contact, and vegetative states such as loss of appetite and insomnia


Relating to digestion


A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal.


That part of the central nervous system contained within the cranium.


An isotope that changes to a more stable state by emitting radiation.


Relating to a system; specifically somatic, relating to the entire organism as distinguished from any of its individual parts.


In immunochemistry, pertaining to a protein from a single clone of cells, all molecules of which are the same; in the case of Bence Jones protein, the chains are all ???? or ????.

Gag reflex

contact of a foreign body with the mucous membrane of the fauces causes retching or gagging


  1. A hollow space; hole.

  2. Lay term for the loss of tooth structure from dental caries


Relating to a definite place or locality; local.


  1. An obstacle or impediment.

  2. In psychiatry, a conflictual agent that blocks behavior that could help resolve a personal struggle.

  3. In psychotherapy, anything that acts as an impediment to the insight, constructive change, healing, and growth of a patient (an unhealthy or primitive defense mechanism; secondary gain; conflicted ambivalence; unconscious motivation derived from residual conflict from an earlier developmental stage; stubbornness; lack of ability to detach, observe, or analyze).


  1. Aiding digestion.

  2. An agent that favors or assists the process of digestion


Treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease.


Originally, a term denoting synthetic narcotics resembling opiates but increasingly used to refer to both opiates and synthetic narcotics.


Any soft marrowlike structure, especially in the center of a part


A nonsteroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent derived from propionic acid.


  1. A doctor; a person who has been educated, trained, and licensed to practice the art and science of medicine.

  2. A practitioner of medicine, as contrasted with a surgeon.


A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; consists of cells (chondrocytes), an interstitial matrix of fibers (collagen), and ground substance (proteoglycans). There are three kinds of cartilage hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Nonvascular, resilient, flexible connective tissue found primarily in joints, the walls of the thorax, and tubular structures (larynx, air passages, and ears); makes up most of the skeleton in early fetal life, but is slowly replaced by bone. For a gross anatomic description, see cartilago and its subentries


  1. A plant, specifically one used for food.

  2. Relating to plants, as distinguished from animals or minerals


Progressive proliferation of abnormal leukocytes found in hemopoietic tissues, other organs, and usually in the blood in increased numbers. Leukemia is classified by the dominant cell type, and by duration from onset to death. This occurs in acute leukemia within a few months in most cases, and is associated with acute symptoms including severe anemia, hemorrhages, and slight enlargement of lymph nodes or the spleen. The duration of chronic leukemia exceeds one year, with a gradual onset of symptoms of anemia or marked enlargement of spleen, liver, or lymph nodes

Gamma rays

electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive substances; they are high-energy x-rays but originate from the nucleus rather than the orbital shell and are not deflected by a magnet.


Plural of bacterium.


An appliance, usually mechanical, designed to perform a specific function, such as prosthesis or orthesis.


  1. Part of body by which the head is connected to the trunk, it extends from the base of the cranium to the top of the shoulders.

  2. In anatomy, any constricted portion having a fancied resemblance to the neck of an animal.

  3. The germinative portion of an adult tapeworm, that develops the segments or proglottids; the region of cestode segmentation behind the scolex


Any necklike structure


The study or science dealing with the physical, chemical, and biologic properties and features of neoplasms, including causation, pathogenesis, and treatment.


The antithesis of leukocytosis; any situation in which the total number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is less than normal, the lower limit of which is generally regarded as 4000??????5000/mm3


  1. A tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic tissues of the bone marrow.

  2. A plasma cell tumor.


  1. A compound that reversibly depresses neuronal function, which produces loss of ability to perceive pain and/or other sensations.

  2. Collective designation for anesthetizing agents administered to a person at a particular time.

  3. Characterized by loss of sensation or capable of producing loss of sensation.

  4. Associated with or owing to the state of anesthesia.


The major phenanthrene alkaloid of opium; it produces a combination of depression and excitation in the central nervous system and some peripheral tissues; predominance of either central stimulation or depression depends on the species and dose; repeated administration leads to the development of tolerance, physical dependence, and (if abused) psychic dependence. Used as an analgesic, sedative, and anxiolytic.


The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (???? and ???? rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in disintegrations per second (dps). One dps is equal to 1 becquerel, and 3.7 ???? 1010 dps equals 1 curie.


Alkaloidal principle in the fruits of various species of Capsicum, with the same uses. It depletes substance P from sensory nerve endings; sometimes used for pain in postherpetic neuralgia.


A quantity that, under stated conditions, does not vary with changes in the environment.

Major depression

a mental disorder characterized by sustained depression of mood, anhedonia, sleep and appetite disturbances, and feelings of worthlessness, guilt, and hopelessness. Diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode (DSM-IV) include a depressed mood, a marked reduction of interest or pleasure in virtually all activities, or both, lasting for at least 2 weeks. In addition, 3 or more of the following must be present gain or loss of weight, increased or decreased sleep, increased or decreased level of psychomotor activity, fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, diminished ability to concentrate, and recurring thoughts of death or suicide


  1. An involuntary reaction in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery, and transmitted to the nervous centers in the brain or spinal cord. Most deep reflexes are stretch or myotatic reflexes, elicited by striking a tendon or bone, causing stretching, even slight, of the muscle, which then contracts as a result of the stimulus applied to its proprioceptors.

  2. A reflection.


Relating to the mucosa or mucous membrane.

Bone marrow

the soft, pulpy tissue filling the medullary cavities of bones, having a stroma of reticular fibers and cells; it differs in consistency by age and location


The property or condition of being malignant.


Relating to medicine having curative properties


Any neoplasm of lymphoid or reticuloendothelial tissues; in general use, synonymous with malignant lymphoma; present as apparently solid tumors composed of cells that appear primitive or resemble lymphocytes, plasma cells, or histiocytes. Lymphomas appear most frequently in the lymph nodes, spleen, or other normal sites of lymphoreticular cells; may invade other organs or manifest as leukemia. Lymphomas are now classified by histology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis, according to cell of orgin (B or T cells) and degree of maturation. The current World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms is based on the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification and effectively replaces older schemes such as the Working Formulation and Rappaport classification, which were based solely on morphology.


A compound formed by the addition of a hydrochloric acid molecule to a basic moiety on the substance, guanine hydrochloride, glycine hydrochloride.


  1. A substance added to a drug product formulation that affects the action of the active ingredient in a predictable way.

  2. immunology a vehicle used to enhance antigenicity; a suspension of minerals (alum, aluminum hydroxide, or phosphate) on which antigen is adsorbed; or water-in-oil emulsion in which antigen solution is emulsified in mineral oil (Freund incomplete adjuvant), sometimes with the inclusion of killed mycobacteria (Freund complete adjuvant) to enhance antigenicity further (inhibits degradation of antigen and/or causes influx of macrophages).

  3. Additional therapy given to enhance or extend primary therapy’s effect, as in chemotherapy’s addition to a surgical regimen.

  4. A treatment added to a curative treatment to prevent recurrence of clinical cancer from microscopic residual disease.

Cosmic rays

high-velocity particles of enormous energies, bombarding earth from outer space; the ??????primary radiation?????? consists of protons and more complex atomic nuclei that, on striking the atmosphere, give rise to neutrons, mesons, and other less energetic ??????secondary radiation.??????


  1. Third letter of the Greek alphabet, ????.

  2. A unit of magnetic field intensity equal to 10??????9 T.


  1. Combining form meaning against, opposing, or, in relation to symptoms and diseases, curative.

  2. Prefix denoting an antibody (immunoglobulin) specific for the thing indicated; antitoxin (antibody specific for a toxin).


Abbreviation for blood-brain barrier; bundle-branch block.


  1. Experience of fear or apprehension in response to anticipated internal or external danger accompanied by some or all of the following signs muscle tension, restlessness, sympathetic (automonic) hyperactivity (diarrhea, palpitation, rapid breathing or jitteriness), or cognitive signs and symptoms (hypervigilance, confusion, decreased concentration, or fear of losing control). It may be transient and adaptive or pathologic in intensity and duration.

  2. In experimental psychology, a drive or motivational state learned from and thereafter associated with previously neutral cues.


The air-dried milky exudation obtained by incising the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum (family Papaveraceae) or the variant, P. album. Contains some 20 alkaloids, including morphine, noscapine, codeine, papaverine, and thebaine, about 10% all in varying amounts. Used as an analgesic, hypnotic, and diaphoretic, and for diarrhea and spasmodic conditions


  1. Counteracting depression.

  2. A pharmacologic agent used in treating depression.


  1. A drug.

  2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science concerned with disease in all its relations.

  3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually requiring surgical intervention.


Relating to the fauces.

Medical history

a narrative or record of past events and circumstances that are or may be relevant to a patient’s current state of health. Informally, an account of past diseases, injuries, treatments, and other strictly medical facts. More formally, a comprehensive statement of facts pertaining to past and present health gathered, ideally from the patient, by directed questioning and organized under the following heads. Chief Complaint (CC) a brief statement of the complaint or incident that prompted medical consultation. History of Present Illness (HPI) a detailed chronologic narrative, as much as possible in the patient’s own words, of the development of the current health problem from its onset to the present. Past Medical History (PMH) prior illnesses, their treatments and sequelae. Social History (SH) marital status, past and present occupations, travel, hobbies, stresses, diet, habits, and use of tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. Family History (FH); present health or cause of death of parents, brothers, sisters, with particular attention to hereditary disorders. Review of Systems (ROS) an exhaustive survey of symptoms or diseases, organized by body system, not covered in previous parts of the history.


  1. The dried exuded sap from a number of trees and shrubs, forming an amorphous brittle mass; it usually forms a mucilaginous solution in water and is often used as a suspending agent in liquid preparations of insoluble drugs.

  2. Water-soluble glycans, often containing uronic acids, found in many plants




  1. An apparatus for forcing a gas or liquid from or to any part.

  2. Any mechanism for using metabolic energy to accomplish active transport of a substance.

General anesthetics

drugs used either by the intravenous route or by inhalation that render the subject unconscious and incapable of perceiving pain such as might otherwise occur in surgery.


  1. To retch; to cause to retch or heave.

  2. To prevent from talking.

  3. An instrument adjusted between the teeth to keep the mouth from closing during operations in the mouth or throat.




  1. The upper or anterior extremity of the animal body, containing the brain and the organs of sight, hearing, taste, and smell.

  2. The upper, anterior, or larger extremity, expanded or rounded, of any body, organ, or other anatomic structure.

  3. The rounded extremity of a bone.

  4. That end of a muscle that is attached to the less movable part of the skeleton


Unable to see; without useful sight


Abbreviation for passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; patient-controlled analgesia; patient-controlled anesthesia.


  1. The subjective enlargement of a bright object seen against a dark background.

  2. Exposure to the action of electromagnetic radiation (heat, light, x-rays).

  3. The spreading of nervous impulses from one area in the brain or cord, or from a tract, to another tract.


A covering; a layer of some substance spread over a surface.


A knob-shaped structure, lesion, or device.


The plant Chondrus crispus, Fucus crispus, or Gigartina mamillosa (family Gigartinaceae); a demulcent in chronic and intestinal disorders


Relating in any way to neuropathy.


Relating to medicine or the practice of medicine


Abbreviation for dimethyl sulfoxide.


Possessing radioactivity


  1. The discharge of excrementitious matter.

  2. The matter so discharged


  1. The point at which the light rays meet after passing through a convex lens.

  2. The center, or the starting point, of a disease process.


A derived protein formed from the collagen of tissues by boiling in water; it swells when put in cold water, but dissolves only in hot water; used as a hemostat, plasma substitute, and protein food adjunct in malnutrition.


The presence of abnormally small numbers of neutrophils in the circulating blood


  1. Relating to a nerve or the nerves.

  2. Easily excited or agitated; suffering from mental or emotional instability; tense or anxious.

  3. Formerly, denoting a temperament characterized by excessive mental and physical alertness, rapid pulse, excitability, often volubility, but not always fixity of purpose.


Originally, any one of hundreds of plant and fungal products distinguished by alkaline (basic) reactions, but now restricted to heterocyclic nitrogenous and often complex structures possessing pharmacologic activity; their trivial names usually end in -ine (morphine, atropine, colchicine). Alkaloids are synthesized by plants and are found in the leaf, bark, seed, or other parts, usually constituting the active principle of the crude drug; they are a loosely defined group, but may be classified according to the chemical structure of their main nucleus. For medicinal purposes, due to improved water solubility, the salts of alkaloids (morphine sulfate, codeine phosphate) are usually used. see also individual alkaloid or alkaloid class


A disorder, disease, or symptom, or the description of it.


  1. An inert substance given as a medicine for its suggestive effect.

  2. An inert compound identical in appearance to material being tested in experimental research, which may or may not be known to the physician or patient, administered to distinguish between drug action and suggestive effect of the material under study


The first intestinal discharges of the newborn infant, greenish in color and consisting of epithelial cells, mucus, and bile


A molecule containing two atoms of oxygen, carbon dioxide, CO2.


A connective tissue neoplasm, usually highly malignant, formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells.


  1. A natural cavity, pouch, or recess; a sunken or depressed area.

  2. A cavity formed artificially or as the result of a pathologic process

Related Material

  1. Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ – National Cancer Institute

  2. Pain Management

  3. DMSO – The Magic Bullet For Cancer


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